Paschal Grousset, “The Dream of an Irreconcilable” (1869)

I’ve posted a working translation of Paschal Grousset’s 1869 The Dream of an Irreconcilable, an odd little political “utopia” of sorts, which begins with the narrator falling asleep over his newspaper, as he reads the new revisions to the French constitution, explores in a novel fashion some of the details of a rather Paris Commune-like post-revolutionary future, and then ends with one last jab at the current regime. Translation is, in this case, simply the first step in making the work intelligible, since it is full to overflowing with topical references and in jokes, which I’ve now started to explore and will eventually document in an annotated edition. Grousset, who is probably best known for his work as a writer of adventure fiction and a collaborator of Jules Verne, was a radical journalist, a communard deported to New Caledonia, and an escapee from the penal colony there. The Dream originally appeared as an issue of Le Diable à Quatre (The Devil to Pay).

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Charles Fourier, Cardinal and the Principal Movements in the Harmony of the Universe

FOURIER.
I am aware that it is very humiliating for an age in possession of so much physical and mathematical science, to be branded with ignorance concerning other branches of knowledge; to be openly accused of entertaining false notions on many subjects, and of not being initiated even in the most elementary details of several very important sciences; such, for instance, as the four following:—
Industrial Association.
Passional Attraction.
Aromal Mechanism.
Universal Analogy.
If the pride of modern learning feel offended at this sweeping declaration, let it reflect upon the following table of distinctions in the branches of universal unity; from which it will become apparent that the genius of modern science has hardly penetrated into one-tenth part of the system of Nature.
A Table of the Cardinal and the Principal Movements in the Harmony of the Universe.
4. The Material branch of Universal Movement.—The theory of astronomy only explains the effectsand not the causes of material movement or attraction.
3. The Aromal branch of Universal Movement.—This branch relates to the distribution of the different sorts of aroma or imponderable fluid, known and unknown, operating actively and passively on the different orders of creation in the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. These different sorts of imponderable fluid are not known systematically, nor are the causes of their influence respectively attached to them at all understood, particularly as regards the conjugations of planets which are regulated according to the laws of aromal affinity.
2. The Organic branch of Universal Movement.—The laws according to which the creator regulates and distributes forms, properties, colours, flavours, &c., to all the substances which have been, or are to be created on the different globes of the universe. Up to the present time nothing has been known concerning the distribution of different properties to those creatures in actual existence, nor of the causes and effects of such productions as may be expected in future creations.
1. The Instinctual branch of Universal Movement: or the Laws of Necessity, according to which the passions and instincts are distributed to different orders of beings in the creation. Neither the mode of distribution nor the causes which regulate the distribution of instinctive faculties are known to our Divines and Philosophers.
And, finally, the passional or social branch of universal movement: or the laws which govern the organization and succession of different forms of society on different globes. Neither the causes nor the effects of this pivotal or leading branch of universal movement and harmony are known to our men of learning and influence. They have no idea of the laws of unity which harmonize the passions of mankind without thwarting them by repressive discipline.
From this general view of universal movement it is quite clear that one of the five primordial branches only is known to our men of science, and even that has been but partially discovered, for, the science of Astronomy only explains the effectsof material attraction and not the causes. One half, therefore, of one of the five primordial branches of universal attraction, or one-tenth part only of the laws of universal movement, is all that our leading men of science can explain.
The aromal branch of universal movement is hardly dreamed of by Philosophers, and scientific corporations: it has never been a subject of systematic investigation; and yet its influence is of a very superior order in the material harmony of the universe, which our learned Astronomers have only partially explained, for want of a knowledge of aromal affinities or the natural functions of the imponderable fluids in planetary attraction.
By putting the following questions to our Astronomers, we should certainly reduce them to a confession of ignorance:—
1. What are the law, which regulate the distribution of satellites and their respective conjugations with the primary planets? Why is it that the planet Uranus, which is hardly one-fourth the size of Jupiter, has a greater number of satellites?
2. What are the laws of planetary conjugation? How is it that Vesta the smallest of all planets does not revolve as a moon round one of the others; not even, round the enormous Jupiter to which it is so nearly located.
3. What is the law which regulates the position of the planets with respect to the sun? Why should Uranus, being considerably less than Jupiter, be immensely more distant from the sun? and why should our earth, being even smaller than Uranus, be nearer to the sun than Jupiter?
These and many other questions on the laws of universal harmony, are beyond the learning of our great men, for all their science is confined to the analysis of general effects, but of first causes, they know nothing. As I have already said, they have not yet discovered one-tenth part of the laws of universal nature. Newton certainly commenced the study of attraction as a universal law, but he commenced at the wrong end of the subject. It has been very well said, but ill attended to, that “the proper study of mankind is man,” and that is certainly true; for the study of human nature, or the scientific analysis and synthesis of passional attraction is the real key to the study of universal attraction and repulsion, or the law of universal movement and harmony.
As a mathematician, Newton did all that we had a right to expect from him, but, on seeing the brilliant success which attended his labours in the study of material attraction, our men of science might have been led to augur well of a similar investigation of the laws of moral or passional attraction. This would have led them on to the discovery of Nature’s laws with regard to the causes and effect. of movement and harmony in the aromal the organic and the instinctual spheres of attraction.
It would have been very natural to suppose in accordance with the unity of system which governs the universe, that, as a regular analysis of material attraction or gravitation had explained the material branch of harmony and unity in Nature, a systematic calculation embracing analytical and synthetical views of passional attraction, might reveal to us the natural method of realizing unity and harmony in the moral branch of universal activity.
This method of investigation has been entirely neglected, and thence it is that the world is in total darkness with respect to moral and social harmony.
*        *        *        *        *        *
The real science of association is inseparable from that of universal unity, or unity of man with man, with God, and with the universe. It is for this reason that I deem it necessary to treat of universal analogy, or unity of man with the universe, and the immortality of the soul, or unity of man with God, as well as of social science, or unity of man with man.
This method may perhaps displease Atheists and Materialists who are now become so numerous and intolerant, particularly in France; but, as I believe unity of doctrine to be the only true basis of progress, I must be allowed to think for myself on these subjects, and those who do not think proper to examine or concur in my views of analogy and immortality, may deem them merely conjectural, and confine their attention to that branch of unity which they deem most important; namely, the unity of man with man, which is the special object of social science.
Source: The Morning Star,  No. 8 (December 30, 1840) 59-60; translated from The Theory of Universal Unity.

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Charles Fourier, Framework for the Integral Study of Nature

FOURIER
ON THE UNITY OF SYSTEM IN UNIVERSAL NATURE.
Modern sophists, particularly in France, have generally aimed at explaining the unity of system which is remarkable in universal nature, and yet the philosophical world never was farther removed from the right line of study on this subject than at present. There is hardly a correct idea abroad
concerning the fundamental basis of universalism or general unity, which may be thus resumed:—
Unity of man with man,
Unity of man with God,
Unity of man with the universe.
In this book it will be demonstrated that philosophers have either purposely or unwittingly neglected to study the first of these three primordial branches of unity: that of man with man, or man in society, and particularly of man with himself or his own passions, which, in the present incoherent slate of social organization, are in a slate of general deviation and discord, hurrying headlong to ruin those individuals who suffer them to rule.
This duplicity of action, or discord of man with his own nature, has given birth to a science called morale, which mistakes the duplicity of action in human nature for a sign of innate depravity, and the irretrievable destiny of mankind. This science teaches us to resist the impulse of our passions, and be constantly at war with our natural inclinations; and, as a necessary consequence, it places man in a state or opposition to his Maker, who created those inclinations; for those passions and instincts which animate all living beings were given to them by God as the laws of their being, and guides to their respective destinies.
To this it is objected by metaphysical casuists, that reason was given to man to control his passions; whence it would follow, 1st—That God had subjected us to the rule of two guides, which are eminently dissimilar and irreconcileable, i. e., reason and passion. (This constitutes a thorough discrepancy in theory.)
2nd—That God would be absolutely unjust towards 99 men in every 100 to whom he has not given enough reason tp govern their passions. In all countries it has been observed that the mass of the people are almost devoid of reason; and, therefore, according to this doctrine, there is a great lack of distributive justice on the part of Deity. (This constitutes a thorough discrepancy in distributive unity.)
3rd—God, in giving us reason as a means of counter-balancing the passions, would have acted very injudiciously; for it is notoriously evident that reason is totally inadequate to the government of the passions, even amongst the fell’ who have been most richly endowed with it, for those very men who talk most about reason, such as Voltaire and other philosophers, have been more subject to the impulse of their passions than any other men. (This fact constitutes a thorough discrepancy in the practical part of moralism.)
So that the boasted science of moralism sets out by a complete negation of the first branch of unity, and places man in a triple state of duplicity with himself and his fellow-beings; a principle winch is as monstrous as it is arbitrary, and which aims at nothing less than accusing Deity of a triple and wilful duplicity in creating the passions.
There is nothing admissible in these three hypotheses of moralism: they will be duly analysed and fully refuted in the three first sections of this book, wherein it will be demonstrated that all the aberrations of metaphysical sophistry have originated in one grand error; that of omitting the study of passional attraction, the analytical and synthetical calculation of which would have led to the discovery of their natural functions in the equilibrium of passion and reason, which are as perfectly accordant with each other in an associative medium as they are necessarily discordant in competitive society.
Being ignorant of the first primordial branch of unity, that of man with himself and his fellow-beings, it is not extraordinary that philosophers should be ignorant of the second and third branches of universal unity; unity of man with his Maker and with the universe. The study of the first branch being incomplete, the two others were necessarily undiscovered.
Thus, therefore, has the whole system of nature been unknown to philosophy, and the genius of man has been limited to an imperfect knowledge of a few secondary branches of nature’s laws, such as the theory of gravitation or material attraction, which is only a fragment at the third primordial branch of general unity. Newton’s discovery ought to have led the way from the study of material to that of passional attraction, in order to discover what were the natural laws of passional affinity; what was the domestic and social organization which God had pre-ordained, as being best adapted to the natural and harmonic development of human instincts and passions; what was the true Slate of industrial activity, for it has ever been abundantly evident that the present state of things is out of harmony with nature.
It has been vaguely laid down as a general principle, that man is made for society; but it has not been clearly stated that society may be organized on two fundamentally different principles: that of association and that of individualism, or competition and cooperation. The difference between the two is exactly analogous to, and correlative with, the difference between truth and falsehood, riches and poverty, justice and injustice, light and darkness, brutality and refinement; and, to go from the medium to the two extremes in the creation, the difference is analogous to that which distinguishes the planet from the comet, in the solar system, and the creeping caterpillar from the beauteous butterfly, in the world of insects.
The natural method of speculation on this subject is exceedingly simple.
There can be but two fundamentally different modes of organizing industry, namely, the divisional system of culture by isolated families and individuals as we see it now, and the associative system of culture and industry, by means of numerous bodies acting in co·operative unity, and possessing an exact science of equitable repartition to each individual, according to the respective faculties of industrial production, i. e, capital, science, and labour.
We have only to ask ourselves which of these two modes of social activity is the one especially designed by God? The competitive or the co-operative organization? There can be no room for hesitation in deciding this question. As the Supreme Economist, God must necessarily prefer the associative state of society, which is the most perfectly economical, and, in order to facilitate the establishment of this perfect state of society, the Creator must have pre-ordained a scientific basis of co·operative organization, the discovery of which was the task of human genius.
If association be the law of justice and the will of God, it follows as a matter of course that the competitive state should be the very contrary, and generate every thing which is in contradiction with justice and truth; in a word, it naturally engenders effects which are diabolical and contrary to the spirit of truth, and such are its natural results as they are manifested in poverty, fraud, violence, oppression, carnage, &c. &c.
And, moreover, since it is evident that every variety of competitive society, patriarchal, barbarian, and civilized, only tend to perpetuate these diabolical results in defiance of scientific discoveries, it is quite clear that our only resource is in the adoption of co-operative principles and organization.
The present generation ought to have turned its attention to the problem of association, but neither statesmen nor economists have thought seriously of doing so, and philosophers are too deeply enamoured of their own theories to think of abandoning the long cherished sophisms.
At length, however, the discovery is made, and what is more, it is made completely, in all its degrees; but it has one great blemish in the eyes of philosophy: it is in direct contradiction with all previous systems of social mechanism, and it dispenses at once with those uncertain sciences called politics, metaphysics, moralism, and economism.

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Charles Fourier, The Critical State of Civilization (2 of 2)

FOURIER,
ON THE CRITICAL STATE OF CIVILIZATION IN EUROPE.
There never was a greater want of useful discoveries in the civilized world than at present. Society is now afflicted with four disastrous elements of a comparatively modern date, which aggravate the primithve causes of human suffering. These modern elements of social misery are,
1. The new pestilence and its complications.[1]
2. The insalubrious effects of injudicious culture and the destruction of Forests.
3. The permanency of revolutionary ferment
4. The alarming increase of public debts and stock-jobbing speculation.
This quadruple plague proves that civilization and refinement are progressing like the lobster, backwards instead of forwards. Instead of approaching nearer to human happiness, society is daily becoming more and more miserable.
To these elements of social calamity we must add another which is worse than all; namely—The charlatanism of the scientific world which is more baneful in its effects on society than all the other social evils taken collectively, for it not only misleads public opinion, by advocating the present system which engenders so many evils, but it offers the most obstinate resistance to all effective plans of improvement.
The modern sect of economists are constantly lauding the present system of society and the incoherent principles of free trade, as the beau ideal of social perfection, and the pride of modern genius. If we believe them, the science of social progress has attained the limits of perfection in their refined sophistry concerning the wealth of nations.
To refute; these pseudo-economists we have only to point to the practical results of their doctrines, as they are embodied in the evils just now mentioned. If we take one of these evils alone, the increase of national debts and the penury of governments, where are we to look for a remedy? Can politicians and economists remedy the evil. Their arbitrary speculations only serve to increase national burdens, for those countries in which economists are the most numerous and their doctrines, have the greatest influence, are also the most oppressed by the weight of nominal property. France and England for instance. *  *  *  *
What folly it is for the present generation to pin their faith to the sophisms of these economists, who delude them. selves and society by visionary speculations concerning free-trade, and persuade the public that all truly progressive principles are impracticable. We shall prove however, in this work, that there are numerous modes of improving society on associative principles, though all plans of incoherent progress can only tend to enslave the people and increase the despotic power of money monopoly.
The exact sciences, mathematics, chemistry, &c., are progressing rapidly in real discoveries, and far from pretending to have already attained perfection, their votaries very modestly avow that much more remains yet to be discovered in every branch of these sciences. The philosophers and economists of the present day have adopted a very different line of conduct. The more their doctrines increase the real evils of society, the more they persist in their visionary mode of speculation, the absolute failure of which, after 30 years experience, proves that a new science is necessary to save society from ruin. *   *   *   *
If men had any real faith in the universality of Providence, they would be convinced that God has provided a natural code of laws for the government of society, and that It is I possible to discover those principles which are best adapted to the domestic and industrial prosperity of mankind.
I do not mention the principles of government, because the grand error of philosophical speculation on that subject, during the last three thousand years, has consisted in agitating questions of government, instead of studying the principles of social organization, The true method of progress would not give umbrage to any government, for all are desirous of seeing industry progress and prosperity increase, as the best sources of peace and security in society.
It is well known that domestic and industrial association if it were practicable, would realize an immense increase of wealth and comfort: The creator, therefore, must know this better than we; what, then, must be his intention in this respect? There are but two fundamentally different modes of social organization: the present system of incoherent industry and the associative method of organization. Which of these states of Society is the natural destiny of man? All the mental, moral, material, and religious advantages indicate the latter to be our real destiny upon Earth, and therefore it was the duty of philosophers to study the natural principles of association, which would have been easily discovered by a diligent inquiry,
But such an inquiry, concerning the laws of nature would have been in direct opposition to the arbitrary speculations of moral, political, metaphysical, and economical science, based as they are upon uncertain philosophy. A want of faith in Providence has caused men to trust to human reason instead of studying the divine will as it is revealed to us in the laws of nature. *   *   *   *
Let us examine more minutely the present state of society and the evils generated by political ignorance. This will give us an idea of the insufficiency of arbitrary science and the necessity of a new policy to save us from ruin.
THE MATERIAL ELEMENTS OF DECLINE.
1stly…. The Plague and its additional complications.
1. The inhabitants of Northern Europe think themselves secure from the effects of this pestilential disease, because it has been generally confined to the coast of Spain, but in spite of quarantine regulations, the yellow fever will sooner or later be imported to England and France, for it is becoming more and more prevalent in the West Indies, while medical men are still ignorant, both of the nature of the malady and the means of curing it.
2. The old pestilence peculiar to the Levant is likely to become more prevalent in Europe, since the increase of intercourse between the Turks and the Christians.
3. The typhus fever, which decimates both the negro and the while population of America is another specimen of modern perfection, which is already said to increase the malignity M the yellow fever.
4. The cholera morbus is approaching from the East. It has already reached Bagdad, and will no doubt be speedily transmitted to us through the medium of our amiable allies, the Turks, who, from their filthy habits and blind belief in fatalism, will soon have allowed the Indian and the Egyptian plagues to unite, and these two united to the typhus and the yellow-fever, will form a compound of pestilential elements, and a new plague of more malignant and disastrous effects than any of the simple infections. These are the material results of our present system of progress, and our philosophers are deluding themselves and the public with  declamatory twaddle about progress. This one positive symptom of decline is enough to undeceive all thinking people; but we will enumerate three others.
As a set-off to these positive signs of decline, great stress is laid on partial degrees of progress, such as the discovery of vaccination, which has almost entirely neutralised the effects of the small-pox. That is certainly an advantage, but it is not enough to counterbalance the very serious evils which are rapidly increasing around us. The general of an army might as well boast of having taken a thousand prisoners in the field of battle, after losing several thousands of his own men, as for, statesmen to boast of progress in the present state of things. How is it that the statesmen of the present age, who are constantly talking of the balance of power and the progress of civilization, do not perceive that both the political and the material world are receding ten times as much of the one hand as they are progressing on the other? I shall often have occasion to remind them of this curious result of their learned theories concerning the progress of commerce and the balance of power.
2ndly: The insalubrious effects of injudicious culture and the destruction of forests. The seasons are now completely deranged in their alternations; they are subject to sudden transitions and periodical excess which cause permanent injury to the culture In Europe. The chief cause of these pernicious irregularities and inclemencies of the seasons, is the reckless manner in which the great mountains in Europe have been deprived of their forest wood. This one blunder alone will be the cause of very serious injury to the agricultural interests of Europe so long as it remains unrepaired; and as that is not likely to be very soon, we have nothing but an increase of bad harvests to expect for a long time to come.
There has been already so much said on this subject that it would be difficult for me to make the picture worse than it has been made by others, unless I add that the evil is often increased by those unexpected seasons which are generally deemed favourable. For instance; after a series of bad seasons from 1816 to 1821, the mild winter and the early spring of 1822 were mistaken for a return to a healthy state of alternation in the seasons, but the result proved the contrary. After experiencing a series of winters which were prolonged to the month of June, our planet seemed in 1822, to have had no winter season; and this irregularity was the cause of an Immense increase of vermin, in addition to premature and persevering droughts and innumerable hurricanes, Which devastated, not two or three parishes here and there, but whole provinces; so that, after all the fine appearances of crops, and the high expectations of the people, the harvest was one of the most indifferent.
These multiplied irregularities, and their disastrous consequences sufficiently prove the material derangement and decline of our planet, and the urgency of a general system of progressive improvement, but how are our natural philosophers to discover a remedy which they never think of looking for? Which of our philosophers is likely to speculate concerning the causes of decline and irregularity in the material functions of our planet, when none of them has ever yet thought of calculating and classifying the mere effects of evil, either in the physical or in the political department?
The political world is evidently not less diseased than the physical world, as we shall clearly show in our next article.


[1] Formerly the pestilential disease which ravaged different parts of the world from time to time was of a comparatively simple nature, and commonly called the Plague, but it has now assumed a quadruple developement: namely,
1. The Ancient Plague or Mediterranean Pestilence.
2. The Yellow fever or American Pestilence.
3. The Typhus fever or European Pestilence.
4. The Cholera-morbus or East Indian Pestilence, which is rapidly progressing towards Turkey and Africa, and will soon be in Europe. (The reader must bear in mind that Fourier made this prediction in 1822, and in 1831 it was fully realized.)

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Charles Fourier, The Critical State of Civilization (1 of 2)

[This section from The Treatise on Domestic-Agricultural Association immediately follows the material already posted from The Morning Star. It appeared in the November 25, 1840 issue (No. 6) of that paper.]

FOURIER
ON THE CRITICAL STATE OF CIVILIZATION IN EUROPE.
ELEMENTS OF DECLINE IN THE POLITICAL WORLD..
The most recent and the most remarkable elements of decline in the political organization of society in Europe, are, national debts and revolutions, which generate each other. Our political doctors have hitherto failed in devising remedies for these social evils. As a check on the prodigality of national expenditure and the increase of national debts, they have established what is called constitutional government and national representation, the principal property of which, according to experience, is to increase taxes, national debts, and popular fermentation. As a check to revolutionary ferment amongst the people, they have established repressive laws, which only tend to multiply the seeds of discontent, and generate a new revolutionary spirit by those very means which are used to put down sedition.
The only effective means of neutralizing the modern spirit of revolution, consists in creating new interests, having the power of absorbing popular-attention, by eclipsing the paltry interests of democratic institutions: such would be the effect of progressive association.
The first positive result obtained by association will change the popular current of opinion from the channels of political agitation to those of productive organization, and thus absorb at once the delusive spirit of sedition and false liberalism, which is now the cause of so much anxiety to all the governments of Europe. Political agitation will be scouted as a senseless loss of time, which only tends to thwart the collective and the individual interests of all classes. Those who deem themselves the most liberal, according to our present notions, will be found to be very wide of the principles of true liberality, notwithstanding their honourable intentions, for the present state of society offers us no type of real liberality.
We shall prove that the most enlightened policy of liberalism ought to conciliate the existing authorities, by confining reform to industrial and economical combinations, without disturbing the functions of general administration, which will always adapt themselves spontaneously to the social state of the people. Besides, it has already been proved by repeated experiments, that political revolutions only increase the burdens of the people for the benefit of intriguing factions, instead of bettering the social condition of the labouring population.
The increase of public debts and stock-jobbing rapacity are so well understood, and the rapidity of their progress is so very notorious, that it is hardly necessary to dwell upon them here; and this fact alone is enough to show the utter inefficiency of that arbitrary science called Political Economy. This leads me to speak of one grand defect, more or less connected with the preceding causes of decline ill society, and that is, charlatanism in science, or the delusive pretensions of arbitrary systems of economy, which are found by experience to produce effects contrary to those which they announce. Tile authors of these systems should be made more or less responsible for the results of their application, and then, perhaps, they would be less reckless in their speculations.
Those philosophers who have talked so long and so loudly about the responsibility of ministers and other public officers, have never said a word about subjecting themselves to similar laws of responsibility concerning the results of their own schemes. And yet it is probable that such a mode of proceeding might be very useful. A penal code for sophistical speculation, proved to be injurious in their results, would have cured the age of the mania for making arbitrary systems, and forced philosophers and economists into the natural method of speculation, which leads to useful discoveries. The present generation may be endowed with great powers Of wit and ingenuity, but it has proved itself to be very deficient in sagacity with respect to the direction of scientific speculation.
I have only mentioned four general causes of decline in the physical and the social world of the present day, but it would be very easy to multiply that number tenfold, as we shall see in the sequel of these pages; enough has been said, however, to show that our champions of progress and perfectibility are completely lost in their own sophistical labyrinths, and that they are causing us to retrograde, in a collective sense, faster than we- progress in an individual sense. It is evident that they are misleading us; and therefore it is highly necessary to verify whether or not association is the only source of healthy progress, and, if so, whether or not the method of corporate organization, which I am about to explain, is the true basis of progressive association.
Without association, it will be impossible to protect the rights of labour against the inroads of national debts, and secure property against the dangers of revolutionary re-action. But to understand the principles of association, we must divest ourselves of all that economico-philosophical superstition which darkens the minds even of those who think themselves open to conviction.. These prejudices may be truly termed the original sin of the present generation, and they will require a considerable degree of preparatory instruction to neutralize them effectually.
If we except the necessity of waging war with sophistical doctrines, we may present the science of association as a doctrine of universal conciliation, for it teaches us how to enrich all classes without injuring any. It will even conciliate philosophers themselves, when they become indifferent to the fate of their arbitrary systems, and can feel the pleasure of true knowledge concerning the science of destiny and the system of Nature, the discovery of which they have never dared to hope for.
The most limited experiment of association uniting about one hundred families on a plot of land containing a few square miles will prove that philosophers have never had any adequate idea of social happiness, nor of the true means of practising that truth, liberty and economy, of which so much has been said, and so little understood.
During a period of at least twenty-fire centuries, since the origin of moral and political science, little has been effected for the general happiness of mankind. Philosophy has only tended to perpetuate misery and reproduce the same calamities under different forms. This proves that mere philosophy is inadequate to the task of solving the problem of human happiness.
And yet, there is a universal uneasiness of mind which proves that humanity has not yet arrived at that state of existence which is called for by Nature, and this uneasiness seems to be prophetic of an extraordinary change in social organization. The nations of the earth, hundreds of times deceived by political quacks seem to hope for some miraculous delivery, like a sick patient abandoned by the doctors. Nature seems to whisper in the ears of the human race,—“that we are destined to a happy state of existence in this world, the road to which we have not yet found, but that a miraculous discovery will dispel the darkness of incoherent policy and reveal at once the true road to terrestrial happiness.
The science of association will justify this hope, and secure to the whole human race that Slate of graduated and progressive refinement which is universally desired. Science may be said to have effected comparatively little for social happiness, so long as the primary wants of humanity have not been satisfied by a graduated sufficiency of riches and comfort, securing a decent independency to the poorest individuals. Social science itself would only be another source of humility to human reason, if it only enriched the domain of science without creating that abundance of production which will destroy the fear of want and the cause of discord in society.
The present state of incoherent civilization and competitive industry, from which we are about to emerge, is only a temporary state of social existence, to which every globe is subjected during the period of its political infancy. The savage, the Patriarchal, the barbarian or military, and the civilized states of competitive industry are only so many successive degrees in the progress of society from ignorance and poverty to science and social comfort, and this transitional state has been greatly prolonged on our globe by the error of philosophy in neglecting the study of moral attraction and universal harmony.
It would have been eternally vain for philosophers to speculate on metaphysical subtilities concerning human happiness, with competitive industry as a basis of .social organization, for that basis is in opposition to the universal laws of truth and economy, and therefore it is not the natural destiny of mankind; it is not the perfection of society as designed by God.
Philosophers must now confess, either that terrestrial happiness is not the real destiny of mankind, or that their arbitrary methods have not been able to penetrate the secrets of Nature and her laws. And yet it must be owned that the laws of Nature are not impenetrable to those who observe them simply as the mathematicians and chemists do, instead of imagining arbitrary systems and substituting them in lieu of Natures laws, as moralists and metaphysicians have done generally.
The votaries of the exact sciences have observed nature instead of dictating laws to her, but moralists have constantly endeavoured to deny the authority of nature, and stifle the passions and attractions of man instead of studying their natural mechanism in society. Those human passions and desires which have been so long the subject of moral declamation, are nevertheless the eternal springs of human activity and -the permanent interpretation of the divine will, as it is revealed in the universal laws of attraction and repulsion, the analysis and synthesis of which lead us to association as the only means of harmonizing the innate attractions of human nature. And be it observed here, that we use the word passion in a general sense, and not in the common acceptation of brutal impulse or violent agitation.
The deviations of the passions have been mistaken by moralists for innate depravity, and thence it is that they have not been able to discover the laws of social harmony. Instead of observing human nature to discover the secret springs of ac lion, they have studied only to resist those impulsions which they could not destroy. This is the cause of all their blundering.
What a marked contrast there is between the errors of uncertain philosophy, and the sublime results of the exact sciences! Every day adds new errors to old sophisms in the sphere of metaphysical speculation, while on the other hand the physical and mathematical sciences are daily revealing new truths and shedding a lustre upon modern times which is only equalled by the depth of philosophical obscurity which disgraced the eighteenth century.

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Edouard Silberling, Entries from the Dictionary Of Phalansterian Sociology

There was apparently a little flurry of Fourierist publication in France in 1911, which the American Economic Review characterized as “the farewell attempt of a passing school.” I came across Edouard Silberling’s Dictionnaire de sociologie phalanstérienne while trying to answer some questions regarding a translation that Joan Roelofs and I have been working on, and although it didn’t actually help me much at that moment I promised to myself that I would return and explore the work more fully. Political dictionaries are strange things, full of words which might not have much political significance to most people, displayed as occasions for explorations of the application of the political ideology in question. (See, for example, Claude Pelletier’s definition of “quarry,” from his own socialist dictionary.) This Fourierist dictionary certainly has some of that character, but it also functions a something like a concordance to Fourier’s works. Here, as a first taste of what Silberling was up to, are the first three
Entries from the
DICTIONARY OF PHALANSTERIAN SOCIOLOGY
ABANDONMENT.—The abandonment of the weak, of children and of the elderly is one of the characteristics that civilization has borrowedfrom savagery. New Industrial World.109, 407, 424.—The civilized order can only produce eviland hypocrisy. It is powerless to ensure the effective protection of the weak. Supportfor children quickly degenerates intoexploitation, under the mask of charity, and assistance for the infirmand elderly degenerates into abuse.
BEE.—The beehive and the hornets’ nest depict the two political orders of harmony and civilization. Q. 429.—The hive depicts the three functions of unitary industry: production, distribution, consumption. III. 215.
— A bee transported to an island furnished only with bare rock will nonetheless be attracted to flowers. II. 315. — Attraction is a primordial impulse, indestructible in all the beings in creation. Attraction is the divine impetus.
ABUNDANCE.—Abundance will result from the organization of the passional series, or societary regime, which will multiply the pastures, the orchards, the poultry-yards, etc. It will increase the cultivated land in all zones, along with industry and all the sources of wealth.  Q. 243. III. 564, 567, 568, 571. L. 19.
— In civilization we see the abundance of products alongside poverty and hunger, and if the people of civilization do not die of the urgent need for food, they die of hunger slowly through privations, surrounded by products in superabundance. N. 29, 30. — We see entire peoples,  like the Irish in 1822, die of hunger in times of perfect peace and abundance. IV. 362. Haven’t we seen recently, in India, whole populations dying beside piles of wheat?
— In civilization poverty is born from abundance itself. N. 35. — It is an economic monstrosityendemic in advanced civilization. We have a recent example of it in France, where the surplus production of wine has caused the poverty of the producers.

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Jules Verne, “The Sphinx of the Ice Fields” — Chapter I

[Jules Verne’s Le Sphinx des glaces, published in 1897, was a sequel to Edgar Allan Poe’s novel, The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym. Of the two existing English translations, the 1898 version by Mrs. Cashel Hoey, under the title An Antarctic Mystery, is by far the more complete, and is in many ways quite good. However, it omits as much as forty percent of the the original text, eliminating much of the descriptive material and some dialogue. I have begun a fairly extensive revision and completion of that translation, and will post chapters on the blog as they are completed.]
 
The Sphinx of the Ice Fields
By Jules Verne
Chapter I
The Kerguelen Islands
No doubt this tale of the Sphinx of Ice will be met with disbelief. No matter. It is good, I think, that it be put before the public, which is free to believe it or not.
It would be difficult to imagine a more appropriate place for the beginning of these marvelous and terrible adventures than the Desolation Islands. Their name was given to them, in 1779, by Captain Cook, and, indeed, given what I have seen during a stay of some weeks there, I can affirm that they deserve the lamentable title given them by the celebrated English navigator. Desolation Islands—that says it all.
I know that geographical nomenclature insists on the name of Kerguelen, generally adopted for the group which lies in 49° 45’ south latitude, and 69° 6’ east longitude. This is because, in the year 1772, the French baron Kerguelen was the first to report those islands in the southern part of the Indian Ocean. Indeed, the commander of the squadron on that voyage believed that he had found a new continent on the limit of the Antarctic seas, but in the course of a second expedition he recognized his error. There was only an archipelago. But trust me when I say that Desolation Islands is the only suitable name for this group of three hundred isles or islets in the midst of the vast expanse of ocean, which is constantly disturbed by austral storms
Nevertheless, the group is inhabited, and as of August 2, 1839, thanks to my presence at Christmas Harbour, the number of Europeans and Americans who formed the nucleus of the Kerguelen population had for two months even been increased by one unit. It I true, I only awaited an opportunity to leave the place, having completed the geological and mineralogical studies which had brought there.
Christmas Harbour belongs to the most important isle of the archipelago, with an area measuring four thousand five hundred kilometers square—half that of Corsica. It is quite secure, with straight and easy access. The ships can moor there in four fathoms of water. After having doubled, to the north, that Cape François that Table Mountain dominates from twelve hundred feet, look across the arch of basalt, largely hollow at its point. You will see a narrow bay, protected by islets against the furious winds from the east and west. At the base is carved Christmas Harbour. Let your ship make way directly starboard. When it is returned to its anchorage, it can rest on a single anchor, with ease in turning, as the bay is not covered by ice.
Moreover, the Kerguelens possess other fiords, and those by the hundreds. Their coasts are ragged, frayed like the hem of a poor woman’s skirt, especially in the parts between the north and the south-east. Islands and islets abound. The soil, of volcanic origin, is composed of quartz, mixed with a bluish stone. In summer it is covered with green mosses, grey lichens, various hardy plants, especially wild saxifrage. Only one edible plant grows there, a kind of cabbage, with a very bitter flavor, that one would seek in vain in other countries.
There are indeed surfaces which are suited, as rookeries, for the habitat of royal and other penguins, innumerable bands of which people these environs. Dressed in yellow and white, their heads thrown back, their wings appearing like the sleeves of a robe, these stupid fowl resemble from afar a line of monks in a procession along the shoreline.
Let us add that the islands afford refuge to numbers of sea-calves, seals, and sea-elephants. The taking of those amphibious animals either on land or from the sea is profitable, and may lead to a trade which will bring a large number of vessels into these waters.
On the day already mentioned, I was strolling on the port when my host accosted me and said:
“Unless I am much mistaken, time is beginning to seem very long to you, Mr. Jeorling?”
The speaker was a big tall American, installed for twenty years at Christmas Harbour, who kept the only inn on the port.
“If you will not be offended, Mr. Atkins, I will acknowledge that I do find it long.”
“Not at all,” replied that gallant. “You can imagine that I ma as accustomed to answers of that kind as the rocks of the Cape are to the rolling waves.”
“And you resist them as well.”
“Of course. From the day of your arrival at Christmas Harbour, when you descended at the inn of Fenimore Atkins, at the sign of the Green Cormorant, I said to myself: In a fortnight, if not in a week, you would have enough of it, and would be sorry you had landed in the Kerguelens.”
“No, Mr. Atkins; I never regret anything I have done.”
“That’s a good habit, sir.”
“Besides, in wandering this group, I have gained by observing curious things. I have crossed the rolling plains, covered with hard stringy mosses, and I shall take away curious mineralogical and geological specimens with me. I have gone sealing, and taken sea-calves with your people. I have visited the rookeries where the penguin and the albatross live together in good fellowship, and that was well worth my while. You have given me now and again a dish of petrel, seasoned by your own hand, and very acceptable when one has a fine healthy appetite. I have found a friendly welcome at the Green Cormorant, and I am very much obliged to you. But, if I am right in my reckoning, it is two months since the Chilean two-master Penãs set me down at Christmas Harbour in mid-winter…
“And you want,” exclaimed the innkeeper, “to get back to your country, which is mine as well, Mr. Jeorling, to return to Connecticut, to see once more Hartford, our capital…”
“Doubtless, Mr. Atkins, for I have been a globe-trotter for close upon three years. One must come to a stop and take root at some time.”
“Yes! Yes! And when you have taken root, replied the American with a wink, you end up putting out branches!”
“Just so! master Atkins. However, as I have no more family, it is likely that I shall bring the line of my ancestors to an end! At forty I do not fancy putting out branches, as you have, my dear innkeeper, for you are a tree, and a fine tree at that…”
“An oak, and even a green oak, if you will, Mr. Jeorling.”
“And you were right to obey the law of nature! Now, if nature has given us the legs to walk… “
“She has also given us something to sit upon!” responded Fenimore Atkins, with a great laugh. “That’s why I am comfortably settled at Christmas Harbour. My companion Betsey has gratified me with ten children, who will present me with grandchildren in their turn, who will climb my calves like kittens.”
“Will you never return to your native land?… “
“What would I do there, Mr. Jeorling, and what could I have done?… The poverty!… Here, on the contrary, in these Desolation Islands, where I have never had the occasion to feel desolate, ease has come to me and mine.
“Without doubt, Master Atkins, and I congratulate you for it, since you are happy… Nevertheless, it is possible that one day the desire might take hold of you…”
“To uproot myself, Mr. Jeorling!… Come on!… An oak, I tell you, and just try to uproot an oak, when it is rooted to mid-trunk in the rock of Kerguelen!”
It was delightful to hear this worthy American, so completely acclimated to this archipelago, so vigorously tempered in the harsh inclemencies of its climate. He lived there, with his family, like the penguins in their rookeries,–the mother, a hearty matron, the sons, all strong, in thriving health, knowing nothing of the distempers or dilatations of the stomach. Business was good. The Green Cormorant, adequately stocked, had the practice of all ships, whalers and others, that dropped anchor at Kerguelen. He provided them with tallow, grease, tar, pitch, spices, sugar, tea, canned goods, whiskey, gin, brandy.
One would have looked in vain for a second inn at Christmas-Harbour. As for the sons of Fenimore Atkins, they were carpenters, sail-makers, fishermen, and hunted amphibians at the base of all the passes during the warm season. They were honest folk who had, without much ado, followed their destiny…
“Well, Master Atkins, let me assure you,” I declared, “I am delighted to have come from Kerguelen, and I will take away good memories… However, I will not be sorry to take to the sea again…”
“Come on, Mr. Jeorling, a little patience!” this philosopher told me. You should never desire or hasten the hour of separation. Do not forget, besides, that the fine weather will not be slow to return… In five or six weeks…
“In the meantime,” I cried, “the hills and the plains, the rocks and the shores will be covered with thick snow, and the sun will not have the strength to dissolve the mists on the horizon…”
“Why, Mr. Jeorling! You can already see the wild grass push up through its white jacket!… Look closely…”
“Yes, with a magnifying glass!… Between us, Atkins, do you dare to claim that your bays are not still ice-locked in this month of August, which is the February of our northern hemisphere?…”
“I acknowledge that, Mr. Jeorling. But again I say have patience! The winter has been mild this year. The ships will soon show up, in the east or in the west, for the fishing season is near.”
“May heaven attend you, Master Atkins, and may it guide safely to port the ship which cannot tarry… the schooner Halbrane!…
“Captain Len Guy, replied the innkeeper. He is a gallant sailor, although he is English—there are fine folks everywhere–and he takes in his supplies at the Green Cormorant.”
“You think that the Halbrane…”
“Will be reported within eight days off Cape Francois, Mr. Jeorling, or, if it is not, it will be because there is no longer a Captain Len Guy, and if there is no longer a Captain Len Guy, it is because the Halbrane has sunk under full sail between the Kerguelens and the Cape of Good Hope!”
With that, and a haughty gesture, indicating that such a turn of events was hardly possible, Master Fenimore Atkins left me.
I hoped that the predictions of my innkeeper would not be slow in coming to pass, for the season advanced. As he said, there were already visible symptoms of the summer season–summery for these waters, at least. Let the site of the principal island be roughly the same in latitude as that of Paris in Europe and Quebec City in Canada, very well! But it is a question of the southern hemisphere, and, we know it well, thanks to the elliptical orbit that the earth describes, of which the sun occupies one of the foci, that hemisphere is colder I winter than the northern hemisphere, and also warmer than it in summer. What is certain is that the wintry period is terrible in the Kerguelens because of the storms, and because the seas are frozen for several months, although the temperature there is not extraordinarily harsh, – being on an average two degrees centigrade in winter, and seven in summer, as in the Falklands or at Cape Horn.
It goes without saying that, during that period, Christmas-Harbour and the other ports no longer shelter a single ship. In the era of which I speak, steamers were still rare. As for sailing ships, concerned to not let themselves be captured by the ice, they went in search of the ports of South America, on the west coast of Chili, or those of Africa, – most generally Cape-Town of the Cape of Good Hope. A few row boats, some taken by the frozen waters, others beached and encrusted in ice to the tip of their masts, was all that the surface of Christmas-Harbour offered to my view.
However, if the differences in temperature were not great in the Kerguelens, the climate there was still damp and cold. Very frequently, especially in the western parts, the group is assailed by squalls from the north or west, mixed with hail or rain. To the east, the skies are clearer, although the light there is half veiled, and on that side the snow line on the mountain ridges is at fifty feet above the sea.
Thus, after the two months that I had just passed in the Kerguelen archipelago, I awaited nothing so much as the occasion to depart again on the schooner Halbrane, the qualities of which my enthusiastic innkeeper never ceased to extol to me, from both the social and maritime points of view.
“You will never find better!” he repeated day and night. “Of all the long captain in the long history of the English fleets, not a one is comparable to my friend Len Guy, either for bravery, or for skill!… If he showed himself more forthcoming, plus talkative, he would be perfect!”
Thus I had resolved to take the recommendation of Master Atkins. My passage would be booked as soon as the schooner had dropped anchor in Christmas-Harbour. After a rest of six to seven days, she would take to the sea again, headed for Tristan da Cunha, whence she carried a cargo of tin and copper ore.
My plan was to remain a few weeks of the summer season on that island. From there, I intended to set out for Connecticut. However, I did not fail to take into due account the share that belongs to chance in human affairs, for it is wise, as Edgar Poe has said, always “to reckon with the unforeseen, the unexpected, the inconceivable, which have a very large share (in those affairs), and chance ought always to be a matter of strict calculation.”
And if I quote our great American author, it is because, although I am a very practical sort, of a very serious character and a hardly imaginative nature, I nonetheless admire that genial poet of human peculiarities.
Besides, to return to the Halbrane, or rather to the occasions that would be offered me to embark at Christmas-Harbour, I feared no disappointment. At that time, the Kerguelens were visited every year by a large number of ships – at least five hundred. The whale fishery gave fruitful results, as one will judge by the fact that an elephant of the sea can provide a ton of oil, that is to say a return equal to that of a thousand penguins. It is true that in recent years not more than a dozen ships land at this archipelago, since the abusive destruction of the cetaceans has so drastically reduced their number.
Thus, I had no uncertainty about the opportunities that would present themselves to leave Christmas-Harbour, even if, the Halbrane failing to make its rendezvous, captain Len Guy did not arrive to clasp the hand of his chum Atkins.
Each day, I went for a walk around the port. The sun was beginning to grow strong. The rocks, volcanic terraces and columns, shed bit by bit their white winter gown. On the beaches, on the basalt cliff, grew a wine-colored moss, and, offshore, snaked ribbons of seaweed fifty or sixty yards long. On the flats, toward the far end of the bay, some grasses raised their time points – and amongst them the lyella, which was of Andean origin, those produced by the Fuegian flora, and also the only shrub on this soil, the gigantic cabbage of which I have already spoken, so precious for its anti-scorbutic properties.
As for land mammals, although marine mammals abound in these parts, I did not encounter a single one, nor any batrachians or reptiles. There were only a few insects – butterflies and other species – and even these did not fly, for before they could put their wings to use, the atmospheric currents would carry them away and onto the rolling billows of these seas.
Once or twice, I had gone out in one of these solid longboats in which the fishermen face the gales that beat the rocks of the Kerguelen like catapults. With these boats, one could attempt the crossing to Cape-Town, and reach that port, if one had the time. But let me assure you, I had no intention of leaving Christmas-Harbour under those conditions… No! I would pin my hopes on the schooner Halbrane, and that without delay.
In the course of these promenades around the bay, my curiosity attempted to grasp all the various aspects of that rugged coast, that bizarre, colossal, skeleton, all made up of igneous formations, whose bluish bones emerged through  holes in winter’s white shroud…
What impatience gripped me, sometimes, despite the wise counsels of my innkeeper, so happy with his existence in his house at Christmas-Harbour! It is a rare breed, in this world, that the practice of life has made into philosophers. However, in Fenimore Atkins, the muscular system did not prevail over the nervous system. Perhaps he also possessed less intelligence than instinct. Such people are better armed against the jolts of life, and it is possible, when all is said and done, that their chances of finding happiness here below are more considerable.
“And the Halbrane…?” I would say to Atkins each morning.
“The Halbrane, Mr. Jeorling?” he would respond to me in a positive tone. “Of course, it will arrive today, and if not today, it will be tomorrow!… In any event, there will certainly come a day, will there not, which will be the eve of the day when the flag of captain Len Guy will fly at the entrance to Christmas-Harbour!”
Certainly, in order increase the field of view, I would have had to climb the Table-Mount. By an ascent of twelve hundred feet, one obtained a range of thirty-four or thirty-five miles, and, even through the haze, perhaps the schooner would have been glimpsed twenty-four hours sooner? But to climb that mountain, with its flanks still puffy with snow to the very summit… only a fool would have thought of it.
In my rambles on the shore, I put numerous amphibians to flight, sending them plunging into the newly released waters. But the penguins, heavy and impassive creatures, did not decamp at my approach. Was it not for the air of stupidity that characterizes them, one would have been tempted to speak to them, on the condition of speaking their shrill, deafening tongue. As for the black petrels, the black and white puffins, the grebes, the terns, and the scoters, they were quick to take wing.
One day, I was permitted to witness the departure of an albatross, saluted by the very best croaks of the penguins,—like a friend who no doubt abandoned them forever. These powerful fliers can cover stages of two hundred leagues, without taking a moment’s rest, and with such rapidity that they sweep through vast spaces in a few hours.
That albatross, motionless upon a high rock, at the end of the bay at Christmas-Harbour, watched the sea as the surf broke violently on the reefs.
Suddenly, the bird rose with a great sweep into the air, its claws folded beneath it, its head stretched out like the prow of a ship, uttering its shrill cry: a few moments later it was reduced to a black speck in the vast height and disappeared behind the misty curtain of the south.
To be continued…
[Working translation by Shawn P. Wilbur, based in part
on the 1898 translation by
Mrs. Cashel Hoey.]

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The Life and Astonishing Adventures of John Daniel (1770)

One of my very favorite imaginary voyage tales is: 

THE
L  I  F  E
A N D
ASTONISHING ADVENTURES
O F
JOHN DANIEL,
A Smith at Royston in Hertfordshire,
For a Course of Seventy Years.
CONTAINING,
The melancholy Occasion of his Travels, His Shipwreck with one Companion on a desolate Island. Their way of Life. His accidental discovery of a Woman for his Companion. Their peopling the Island.
ALSO
A Description of a most surprising Eagle, invented by his Son Jacob, on which he flew to the Moon, with some Account of its Inhabitants. His return, and accidental Fall into the Habitation of a Sea Monster, with whom he lived two Years. His further Excursions in Search of England. His Residence in Lapland, and Travels to Norway, from whence he arrived at Aldborough, and farther Transactions till his Death, in 1711. Aged 97.

…which manages to take a series of fairly familiar plots elements in some directions that are peculiar even for the genre. I’m overdue to bind a second Corvus Edition of this, but the pdf is available online.

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Samuel Leavitt, “Anti-Malthus” (1880-1881)

[Anti-Malthus was originally published in The Phrenological Journal and Science of Health, August 1880, pages 72-76 and January 1881, pages 32-28. The author, Samuel Leavitt, was an associate of Joshua King Ingalls and George Jacob Holyoake. His work appeared in various of the Oneida colony publications, and in The Arena. In his Reminiscences, Joshua King Ingalls wrote:

I should apologize perhaps to Mr. Samuel Leavitt, for not mentioning his name before. But he has been met on so many different platforms, I scarce know where to place him, particularly. We were in accord on the land and interest problems: but differed politically on the tariff and the greenback questions, although I acted as treasurer for the Liberty Bell, which he published in the Peter Cooper Presidential campaign. He advocated rational divorce for mismated couples. He has been a newspaper man ever since I knew him. He was the author of “Caliban and Shylock,” “Peace Maker Grange,” a social romance, and “Our Money War,” a most elaborate and exact statement of the history of our money metallic or paper, since the existence of our nation, with a bias in favor of fiat money.
Notice, near the end of this essay, Leavitt’s prediction that “a Central Council or a ‘Pantarch’ will probably guide the movements and actions of the earth’s twenty or thirty billion inhabitants.” The use of Stephen Pearl Andrews’ term is probably not accidental, and the vision here is perhaps not so far off from Andrews’ Pantarchy.]
Anti-Malthus
Samuel Leavitt
I
ANTI-MALTHUS COLONIZE THE WHOLE EARTH WITH GOOD AND WISE PEOPLE; AND THUS FULFILL ITS NORMAL DESTINY. WHAT POPULATION WILL THE EARTH CONTAIN?
This essay is not, as might be supposed, a studied effort to refute the special doctrines of Malthus. It is simply an effort toward the rebuttal of one of his main propositions, namely, that great and immediate effort is necessary toward curtailing the natural increase of the human family. Two simple questions will be discussed in this writing.
1. Is there in the aggregate, or in any large portion of the earth, a real overpopulation? 2. What means shall be used to fill the earth with good and wise people?
As to the first point, the facts concerning the actual population of the various countries will be at once considered.
The area of dry land upon the globe is in round numbers about 51,590,000 square miles, equaling 33,000,000,000 square acres.
The human family is now reckoned to number 1,400,000,000 or about one billion and a half. China, which is so often referred to as over-populated, has 3,742,000 square miles, much of it waste, and 446,000,000 inhabitants, according to a recent report of Prof. Schem. This gives the Chinese five acres apiece. Japan has about 150,000 square miles or 96,000,000 acres, say two and five-sevenths acres for each person.
Saxony, in the German Empire, has 3,698,500 acres and 2,556,244 people; or about an acre and a half apiece. Belgium is said to have one person for each acre.
So then, this globe, filled as to its dry land, with people, would contain about thirty-three billions if populated at the Belgic rate; twenty-two billions at the Saxon rate; twelve billions at the Japanese rate, and six and a half billions at the Chinese rate, yet people go snuffling around, bewailing the swift coming of “the crack of doom,” when we have as yet less than a billion and a half of fellow-creatures around us here; and have no evidence that the number was ever greater than that,
The greatest evil accruing from this idea is, that it gives hard-hearted people an excuse for still further hardening their hearts against their poorer fellows, and—as in the case of the attitude of some European nations toward their foreign dependencies calmly and stolidly watching the slow starvation of millions of famine-stricken wretches.
THE CONTRADICTIONS OF MALTHUS.
As to Malthus, he was not a bad man, and he was a hard-working, careful, patient student and collector of facts. But he would see nothing except from an aristocratic standpoint: was quite firmly convinced that the many were born ready saddled and bridled that the few might ride.” As to England, for instance, it never occurred to him that millions of poor workers could comfortably subsist upon the ground wasted by the nobility and gentry in parks; and that millions more could have a comfortable living in the cities, if the factory owners would be content with a fair share of the profit upon the labor of their “hands,” and by greatly diminishing the hours of labor give employment to these other millions.
A favorite statement of Malthus is, “Population always increases where the means of subsistence increases.” This might have been a saying of important significance at his time, when the subsistence of a community was usually gathered from its immediate neighborhood. Now, however, when the telegraph informs the ends of the earth instantly, when any species of food becomes scarce at any point, and steamers and rail cars can speedily supply the need from any region enjoying a surplus, such a statement becomes quite meaningless.
The main natural checks to population, according to Malthus, are, moral restraints, vice, and misery. He seemed to put much more reliance upon the latter than upon the former, His chief critic, the celebrated Godwin, justly remarked that he should have added “bad human laws and institutions” to his list of existing checks. A specimen of the faulty reasoning of Malthus is found in his statement concerning the population of Australia. He gets his facts from Capt. Cooke, with regard to the scarcity of population on that huge island; and sagely says:
“By what means the inhabitants of this country are reduced to such numbers as it can subsist, is not perhaps very easy to guess.” He thus takes it for granted (forming the conclusion from the supposed love that he evolved from his inner consciousness) that the straggling savages who peopled Australia, in his day, numbered exactly so many human creatures as the island was capable of feeding.
The philosopher is certainly right in the abstract, where he maintains that if human propagation were maintained at its now usual rate, after the “millennium” had arrived, and vice, disease, and misery had ceased to check it, there would be danger of a genuine worldwide overpopulation. We know that in “the good time coming” there will be some new checks. But we also know that they will be natural, and will in no sense militate against the welfare of individuals or communities. We already get an inkling of what these checks will be, in the fact that families of the highest culture and refinement are not as prolific, though they make no attempt to check propagation, as those in the same nation that are subjected to all manner of hardship and privation, short of that extreme distress that always effectually checks population.
We may be sure of one thing—at let those of us who believe in Divine Providence—that as fast as there is any actual necessity for checks (a necessity never yet really reached), the good and wise will be shown what checks to use, and will faithfully adopt them. All the talk of Malthus about the food supply of barbarians and nomads goes for nothing. Following his absurd “law” that population always increases where the means of subsistence increases,” he doubtless gravely decided that the few wandering tribes of Indians on this continent represented fully the population that it was capable of sustaining. Nomads never really try to obtain the principal part of the subsistence that even they know to be contained in the earth beneath their feet.
HOW TO MAKE THE WHOLE EARTH HEALTHY.
O that I could send a glad cry of surprise and discovery throughout the nations: “Increase, multiply, replenish the wide earth! Fill it with wise and good people! It is not yet one-tenth full. It will never be thoroughly healthy and habitable until it is thoroughly filled by intelligent and virtuous human creatures, who will remove all nuisances by a wise culture and drainage of every arable acre.”
Here is an idea that is reliable, and is quite opposite to the whole tenor of Malthusianism: namely, that we should hasten to populate the globe densely, in order to make it truly habitable. “How horrible! what madness!” exclaim the disciples of this prophet of despair; “the very day the earth gets full, the people will begin to starve, if not before, in spite of your millennium.”
Our cheerful answer is: “Trust in the Lord (or in Nature, if you prefer), and do good. Commit thy way unto Him!”
There is now and then a streak of light in the writings of Malthus that relieves the murkiness of his pictures. The following from his Chapter II. really goes quite against his main arguments. He says: “It has been observed that many countries at the period of their greatest degree of populousness have lived in the greatest plenty and have been able to export grain; . . . . and that, as Lord Kaimes observes, ‘A country can not easily become too populous; because agriculture has the signal property of producing food in proportion to the number of consumers.'”
This is a practically opposite statement to that previously given, viz.: “Population always increases where the means of subsistence increases.”
Malthus pays a merited tribute to the monasteries of Europe, where, he says, the agricultural monks have done wonders in fertilizing waste and barren places. Truly here is a genuine work of use for religious devotees The Romanist monks called Trappists have a grand enthusiasm in this direction, similar to that of the old Benedictines. Already have they made many sterile regions blossom like the rose. What a noble work to fertilize the earth for coming happy generations! If people will insist upon being martyrs, they can not select a better form of self-sacrifice. But there is really little need for such work while the greater part of the fertile land is still untilled. Beautiful, smiling wildernesses, the world over, are fairly crying out for human culture and appreciation, and proffering unbounded sustenance from their teeming bosoms.
Careful estimates show that the Valley of Orinoco alone, where an acre of bananas will feed a village, would supply nourishment for the whole population of the world. What nonsense, then, to raise the alarm about over-population. Rather let those who feel an interest in the general welfare busy themselves very specially in scattering the multitudes now gathered in a few regions throughout the unoccupied fertile places.
As the most striking novelty in this writing is the demand that the earth be really filled with good and wise people as soon as possible, in order that it may be made perfectly healthy, the substantiation of that theory must be my main object. It seems a strange statement that: Wise human creatures are Nature’s great disinfectant! and this can be proved; and a very important part of the proof is obtainable from the recently developed facts concerning what is called the “Dry earth system of treating sewage.”
There is nothing more wonderful in modern discovery—or rather re-discovery, for Moses tried to teach these things to humanity thousands of years ago—than the disintegrating and disinfecting effect of applying dry earth to animal and vegetable refuse. The man of philosophic and philanthropic mind, who has used the same earth from six to ten times in an earth closet, and found the disinfective and disintegrative effect as complete the last time as the first, has visions rise before him of the future blessedness of our race and the redemption of the earth under our feet that are quite joyous. Such a man stands aghast as he beholds the waste going on around him, in the destruction of soils and the materials that would recuperate them.
I believe that by the help of this system every living creature can be made to give back to the earth an amount of fertilization, that, added to that derivable from air sunshine and water will fully equal what it takes from the earth. In this fact, if a fact, we have a solution of economical and agricultural questions, worth all the libraries that have been written about the preservation of soils. It explodes also some of the theories of Malthus.
PROPER COLONIZATION.
Now as to the methods of distributing the population of the earth, some say that the poor and foolish can not be organized into successful colonies. Such point to the failure of Robert Owen. But a colony is not necessarily a socialistic community. Ancient and modern history are full of accounts of colonies that were successful. Every migration of portions of tribes has been of that nature. Even socialistic colonies, such as those of Shakers, etc., have been very successful in our country.
Those who establish harmonious colonies do a work like that of Sisters of Mercy on a battle-field; the latter move over the field, soothing the wounded, without considering the nationality of the combatants or the cause of their quarrel. So the founder of a colony need not consider the politics of the people he removes to an improved situation, nor the politics of those among whom he puts them. We should remember when we wander through the miserable slums of a city, that while the inhabitants of these places are half starved, the humming insects and the singing birds are the sole occupants of millions of fertile acres, which would afford these suffering humans happy homes and abundant sustenance. Many will reply that thousands of these people are so shiftless that they would do no better on the soil than they do in the slum. Here comes in the reorganization of society again, and the time will come when men who are able financiers and industrial managers will feel themselves as much bound to exercise their peculiar gifts for human advancement, as a few clergymen, and also some artists, literary men, etc., now do to exercise their peculiar gifts to that end.
As the steam-engine, telegraphy, and discoveries and inventions are rapidly making “all the world akin,” the fact of being our brother’s keeper is more and more forced upon the conscience of Christendom. The time will be when men and women who are not wise or energetic enough to put themselves in fitting surroundings will be persuaded to suffer themselves to be organized into some sort of association by the wise and good, who will lead them to the green pastures and beside the still waters of the less populous parts of the country. Then we shall have such grand work done all over the land as glorious William Penn did, when he drew a multitude after him to the sylvan land of Pennsylvania and the city of Brotherly Love, and made it the model city of the world, though that is not saying much. The possible majesty of an organized colonization movement is seen in the fact that in 1878, when very few European emigrants came to the United States, 800,000 of our people went west of the Mississippi. Through lack of just those elements that colony migration would have given them, these isolated settlers endured fearful privations. Thousands, having lost the savings of a life-time in the universal destruction brought upon us by our rulers, between 1873 and 1878, had gathered up the wrecks of their fortunes, and some in wagons, some on foot, pushed for the wilderness—an incoherent multitude. Thousands who had money enough and brains enough to make very valuable and successful members of skillfully-organized colonies soon found themselves out of money, health, and hope, living in holes in the ground. They had staked their last dollar on this great risk, and were now forced (when past middle age in many cases) to return East and begin life again as “hands” in factory, shop, and Store. The money they wasted would have taken them, under a true cooperative system, in palace cars to palace homes on the prairies. What a grand work to organize such, and save them from such destruction! What a blessedness! Let each rich philanthropic man say: I will be an Industrial Moses! I will stand right here in my lot and organize my employés in co-operative workshops like Godin’s, or lead a multitude, in shape of a thoroughly-equipped colony, into the new country.
THE MOUNTAINS AND DESERTS TO BE TILLED AND FILLED.
And now to return to the means of getting the whole earth ready for an immense population. Whoever even admits the truth of the “dry earth” doctrine will see that we have small occasion as yet to fear over-population. When such means are in thorough use, there need be no waste, no malaria. All available food material will be used. But the world’s population must be held under very strict control if there is to be at no place either famine or over-production. Many new expedients will be adopted. The earth will be gathered by great machines from the vast alluvial deposits, where it is wasted (for instance, from the deltas of the Amazon, Nile, Ganges), and deposited on the barren plains. This very work was done on a large scale by the “mound builders,” who once peopled this country.
Great discoveries will be made in agricultural chemistry. Many materials now wasted will be replaced by others that are cheaper and more available. We used to say, “The fire wood will be used up”—then came the coal; we said, “The whales will all be destroyed”— then came coal-oil; now we have been saying, “The coal and coal-oil will run out”—and here comes electricity to take their place.
In the future the world’s work will be done, more and more, by machinery; therefore, human creatures will need much less food than now, as their energies will not be so exhausted by hard work. All the wildernesses, deserts, and mountains, up to the snow line, will be turned to use in some way for human sustenance. The waters of the ocean w ill be ransacked for edible fish, and its inedible monsters will be exterminated (as will be all those of the land). All inland seas, lakes, ponds, and streams will be stocked with fish, and vast water spaces will be covered with human habitations, as in China.
A thousand or ten thousand years from now, a Central Council or a ‘Pantarch’ will probably guide the movements and actions of the earth’s twenty or thirty billion inhabitants, just as the wonderful train-controller, perched high at the north end of the Union depot in New York, controls, by manipulating rows of buttons connected with the telegraphic instruments, all the trains of the three great railroads centering there. Whereas now able men control the distribution of money, produce, goods, etc., over the world, in a way that suits their selfish aims, so then will the same thing be done by men actuated by pure benevolence. That Central Council or Bureau will be in electric communication with every corner of the earth, and will be continually sending forth messages of information, warning and exhortation.
S. LEAVITT.


II
ANTI-MALTHUS—No. 2 MILLENNIAL BULLETINS
“The Vision is for many days.”
In the PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL for last August there was an article entitled, “Anti-Malthus: Colonize the Whole Earth with Good and Wise People; and thus Fulfill its Normal Destiny.” The points maintained were these:
1: There are thirty-three billion acres of dry land upon our globe, and a billion and a half of people. Filled with people at the Belgic rate it would contain nearly thirty billions; at the Saxon rate, twenty-two billions; at the Japanese rate, twelve billions; at the Chinese rate, six and a half billions.
2. It was shown that Malthus was unreasonable and inconsistent in maintaining that there is any present danger of over-population of the earth,
3. It was averred that wise and good human creatures are Nature’s great disinfectant; and that the earth will not be thoroughly healthy, and therefore habitable, until it is completely filled with such people, who will drain its swamps, and by the highest culture prevent all malaria.
4. After showing how the earth would be prepared for such an immense population, through the growth of science and art, the following statement w as made in conclusion: “A thousand or ten thousand years from now a Central Council or a ‘Pantarch’ will probably guide the movements and actions of the earth’s twenty or thirty billions of inhabitants; just as the wonderful train-controller, perched high at the north end of the Union depot in New York, controls, by manipulating rows of buttons connected with the telegraphic instruments, all the trains of the three great railroads centering there. Whereas now able men control the distribution of money, produce, goods, etc., over the world, in a way that suits their selfish aims: so then will the same thing be done by men actuated by pure benevolence. That Central Council or bureau will be in electric communication with every corner of the earth, and will be continually sending forth messages of information, warning, and exhortation.” The object of the present article is to furnish illustrations of the probable nature of the bulletins that will be issued from that central office when the population shall have reached twenty billions. These illustrations will be given as quotations from the daily official newspaper organ of the Central Council, and some discussion of each will be added.
“BULLETIN 1.—Population too thick in Van Diemen’s Land. Make room for them in Patagonia.”
Of course, such an exigency and such an event as are here supposed must seem very remote, when we consider the sparse population of those countries, and the seeming undesirableness of Patagonia as a place of residence. But population is already pushing in there from Buenos Ayres.
“BULLETIN 2.—Too many oranges raised in the world. The Valley of the Amazon must for five years raise them only for home consumption.”
Here we begin to catch a glimpse of the fact that the long prophesied “Millennium,” or blissful condition of the race, could not possibly be realized until the uses of steam, electricity, etc., had been discovered. Granted the fact that the earth could not be healthy until filled with good and wise people; we come next upon the fact that the immense population proposed could not be kept in harmonious working order without the swift means of intercommunication furnished by those agencies. Furthermore, that a much higher plane of morality than any single race has yet displayed would have to be reached by the whole race before any imaginable external machinery would avail to preserve the peace and prosperity of such a vast aggregation of nations, which must all yield implicit obedience to the wise laws and instructions issuing from the sages gathered at the grand center: for otherwise, no matter how well-intentioned most communities might be, a single inharmonic member in the family of nations would cause a break in the orchestration—dire confusion, famine, pestilence, and starvation through a large section of the earth.
Higher morality—loftier manhood and womanhood—is, therefore, the one remaining need, before “the good time coming” can be ushered in. As the writer stood in the gallery of Machinery Hall, in the Worlds Fair at Philadelphia, he said: Before me here is the physical basis for the Millennium. But all these fruits of science and art are now monopolized by the few shrewd and forceful. It remains, therefore, for the masses to be so morally and intellectually elevated that they will be strong and good and wise enough to enter upon their rightful inheritance in the elements of production and the means of distribution, including those results of human genius. The farmers in India, Ireland, Persia, and the “seven years of (practical) famine in a land of plenty” in this country—1873-80—show how useless it would be to fill the earth with people until a general high morality makes decent self-government and national government possible.
But this necessary dissertation leaves no room to discuss the orange crop, and this subject must be passed with a bare allusion to the fact that either the Orinoco or Amazon basin could feed the present population of the earth.
“BULLETIN 3.—A bad case of coast fever at the mouth of the Congo River Africa. The authorities must account for this oversight.”
[The mouth of the Congo will then be as healthy as our White Mountains are now.]
This, again, seems extravagant to the superficial observer, as it is well known that a white person can now scarcely live at all in that malaria-soaked region. But what is malaria? It is simply a noxious gas liberated from abnormally rotting animal or vegetable substances— when no longer serviceable in their organic shapes. Covering these substances lightly with dry earth quickly and wonderfully dissolves them into their original elements, and makes useful fructifying manure of them, without letting any atom escape to poison living organisms. Think you that there will be malarious fever in any part of beautiful, fertile Africa when twenty billions of the wise and good inhabit the earth? No, indeed! Why, even now, in densely-peopled portions of China, the well-instructed peasant carries a basket to gather from the high way anything of a manurial nature he may observe in passing.
“BULLETIN 4.—The people of France must elevate their spiritual and esthetic tone so as to bring them to a lower breeding ratio, or prepare to begin, four years from now, to send annually to Kamschatka their surplus population, to the amount of a million a year. Their normal limit, at present, is two hundred millions which is now considerably exceeded.”
In just such a manner would population need to be regulated and transferred: and the absolute necessity of a central guidance becomes more apparent as we proceed. France, for various well-known reasons, is now stationary as to population. Under improved conditions the country would naturally fill up; and that mercurial race, so hard to control, might then need the prospect of a large forced emigration from “La Belle France” to the less genial region mentioned, to induce them to curtail their increase. But, of course, in the universally bettered conditions of those times, life in Kamschatka would be more enjoyable than it now is in the most favored regions.
“BULLETIN 5.—Too many foreign airships and air-palaces gather in summer over the lake regions of Italy, Scotland, and Ireland, over the Yellowstone and other American parks and resorts around the higher peaks of the Andes in South America, the Himalayas in Asia, and the Mountains of the Moon in Africa. They obscure the view and are otherwise a nuisance.”
Of course, we all know that the occurrence of such events is only a question of time. The first steam-lifting balloon was a sure prophecy of the swift-moving, heavy-freighted airpalace.
The clustering of such vehicles about the most attractive places in summer is a natural event.
“BULLETIN 6.—The State of Virginia, U. S., will be under censure for sparse population and inferior cultivation of the region once known as The Dismal Swamp,’ if another case of chills and fever occurs there.”
O, ye shiverers! beside all malaria-breeding places, does it seem impossible for you to realize the possibility of such immunity from this poison fiend—this evil “Prince of the Power of the Air?” Behold how many old-settled regions, once redolent of miasma, are now even under imperfect care and cultivation, apparently quite free from it. The English literature of Shakespeare’s time abounds with allusions to the ague-smitten people of districts of Britain now quite exempt from such evils. But what a new departure it would be to have the officials of States and counties instructed by the higher authorities to bring more population into them in order to increase their healthfulness! This would present a refreshing contrast to the methods adopted by soil monopolists in Scotland and Ireland, who drive the population from whole counties, to turn the land into sheep and cattle ranges and game preserves. How utterly depressing to the people driven out is the idea that they are cumberers of the ground.” How encouraging, on the other hand, to the people invited, would be a call for population, when those invited were assured that they could not only prosper in the new home, but also promote the prosperity of their new neighbors—and even the health of those neighbors.
How encouraging, by the way, is this call for a twenty-fold peopling of the earth, to the wretched multitudes of the city tenement-houses; who have, indeed, reason to think that they are cumberers of the ground. But, alas! how few are “good and wise!”—or have a chance to be!
“BULLETIN 7.—The Khan of Tartary is notified that if we can’t prevent portions of reclaimed desert from being again denuded of trees and other vegetation, and relaxing into barrenness steps will be taken to put a better man in his place.”
[It will be observed that the perfect Millennium has not yet arrived.]
In the first article considerable space was devoted to the methods by which wastes and wildernesses and deserts would be reclaimed and made fertile. That process is in progress in portions of our own country. The so called desert lands, this side of the Rocky Mountains, are being rapidly reclaimed, and the rain belt is widening as the soil is broken up and tree-planting progresses. Unfortunately thousands are ruined “in mind, body, and estate,” who, trusting to the lying reports of land and railroad agents, rely too soon upon these recuperative agencies. But we can not yet begin to see the limits of the improvements that will accrue in this regard from agricultural chemistry, irrigation, artesian wells, etc. As to chemistry, for instance, some one has discovered, lately, that vast spaces on Long Island need only the addition of a certain cheap chemical element to make them yield bountiful harvests.
“BULLETIN 8.—A case of miscarriage in the Island of Sumatra is another warning to women not to spend all night dancing during their last month. Twenty billions of people is little enough to keep the earth healthy and happy. The nice balances of population can not be maintained if such mishaps become frequent again.”
That seems extravagant, even as a fancy, concerning the good time coming. But who shall say what is impossible in such directions? We know that there are Indian races existing, among whom miscarriages are of very rare occurrence, and whose women are occupied only for a few hours in parturition. The time prophesied will surely come, when “a man shall be more precious than fine gold”—yea, even an infant. It appears strange, again, that this preciousness of humanity, this dignity of human nature, should occur when the earth is full of people, rather than when population is scant. But this seems ordained, and careful study of all the facts shows that it is natural. Yet how stupendous, how overwhelmingly glorious the idea, that instead of nations slaughtering each other with all the enginery of war that diabolical ingenuity can invent; instead of rulers of such “civilized” nations as England tacitly encouraging famine and starvation in its dependent Indias and Irelands, as “a means of bringing population down to the proper number;” instead of infanticide and foeticide being encouraged not only in heathen India and China, but also in Christian Europe and America; instead of the strong everywhere ruthlessly destroying and shortening the lives of the weak by forcing them to overwork and hurtful work: a time should come when human creatures would be so precious that a foeticide occurring in an island of the Asiatic Seas would be bulletined throughout the twenty billions of the earth s inhabitants as a rare and shocking event!
“BULLETIN 9.—A stranger was found yesterday wandering near Behring’s Straits, American side, after ten in the morning, without his breakfast—no one having offered him any. He had missed the morning air-ferry-ship, and had been overlooked. Such occurrences take the bloom from our boasted New Civilization.”
That certainly opens a vista of felicity in the high-noon of our glorious planet, that is delightful to contemplate. There is nothing impossible about this. Given a world full of wise and good people, producing abundant food for all—guarding carefully against accidents to any—and the necessary conditions are obtained. Even now abundance of nourishment for all living people always exists on the earth. If “man to man would brother be,” it would be properly distributed. Listen to this description of the waste of natural products in South America, which contains vast unoccupied acres of the most fertile lands in the world. Col. George Earl Church, of London, in a report to the Governments of Brazil and Bolivia, says:
“Only the ocean fringe of South America had been, to a limited extent, developed by modern methods of transit; the Pacific coast represented simply the sharp slope of an uninterrupted mountain wall from Panama to Patagonia, and neither man nor beast could travel across the snow-swept barrier, abreast of the head waters of the Amazon in Peru and Bolivia, without scaling the passes at an elevation in no place lower, and in most of the passes as high, as the loftiest peak of the Alps; Peru, with a Babel-like ambition, was then working heavenward with its gigantic railway system, ignoring the fact that its richest and most extensive lands are on the Atlantic slope. Alone of all the South American States, the Argentine Republic appeared to appreciate the problem of opening the interior, and, with the force of its credit and energy, pushed its railways toward the heart of the continent. . . . I found millions of sheep, llamas, and alpacas, browsing upon the mountain sides, and not a cargo of wool was exported; vast herds of cattle roamed the plains, and yet an ox-hide was worth scarcely more than a pound of leather in the European market; hundreds of tons of the richest coffee in the world were rotting on the bushes, and only about ten tons per annum were sent abroad as a rare delicacy; abundant crops of sugar in the river districts were considered a misfortune by the planter, because there was no market; the valleys of Cochabamba were rich in cereal wealth, unsalable when the crop was too great for home consumption; not a valley or mountain-side but gave agricultural, medicinal, and other products, such as commanded ready sale in any foreign market; sixty-five kinds of rare and beautiful cabinet woods stood untouched by man in the great virgin forests of the north and east. The mountains were weighed down with silver, copper, tin, and other metals, and the people gazing upon a wealth sufficient to pay the national debts of the world, and yet unavailable for lack of means of communication.”
“BULLETIN 10.—The Central Office is happy to announce that the Caucasian is now the only race on the earth. The last specimen of an inferior breed—a mixture of Malay, Creole, and Esquimaux —died last week in New Zealand.”
It is all very fine”—humane, brotherly to extol the other races, but the fact remains that the Caucasian is by far the highest. It seems scarcely possible that the perfect life hoped for can be realized on this globe until the other races have gradually passed away, as the North American Indian is now doing. We must be just and generous to these races, and give them every chance of improvement while they remain; but if it is their fate to pass away we can not prevent it. It seems apparent, for instance, from the history of South America, that their intermingling by marriage with us only produces an inferior mongrel, and hinders the advent of the perfect human being. They must “go.”
“BULLETIN 11.—The North Pole Summer Sanitariums and Ice Cures being inconveniently crowded of late years, large establishments of the sort are rapidly springing up at the South Pole, on the Asiatic side, with daily air-ship lines to all principal points south of the Equator.”
There is nothing extraordinary about this, when already we find the wealthy yachtsmen of England taking their summer trips around the North Cape of Sweden, the most northerly point of Western Europe.
“BULLETIN 12.—The wool crop is getting short. Sheep-raising is not pushed properly on some of the higher slopes of the Andes, Rocky Mountains, Himalayas, and Balkans.”
Thus will the watchful eyes of the Central Sages continually take in the situation on every rood of terra firma; every rood will be to them a holy rood”—to be guarded with religious care. The resources of our planet—its capacities for making twenty or thirty billion people comfortable and happy—are immeasurable, when once wisdom and goodness are permanently assured for the whole race. The Infinite One now, when at length it seems safe to do so, has opened the eyes of our keenest men to secrets of art and nature, the possession of which gives them powers such as our forefathers would have considered Divine,” or miraculous. These powers will not long be monopolized by Rothschilds, Goulds, Vanderbilts, and Bonanza kings.
“BULLETIN 13.—A large part of the people of New Orleans, U. S., turned out on Wednesday to bid farewell to a woman who had been banished to Nova Zembla, for wasting a bucket of slops, by emptying it from a steamer into the Mississippi, instead of consigning it to the proper manurial receptacle.”
Well, it must be acknowledged that this is rather straining a point, as to the mass of the population attending this farewell. But the idea about such a waste being considered reprehensible in that “Beautiful Hereafter” is “solid.” A storm of indignation will soon arise against the system of agriculture that has sent the virgin soil of so many of our States to Europe, in the shape of tobacco, cotton, wheat, etc., and so much more of our fertility to the sea through the sewers of our cities.
“BULLETIN 14.—The Central Council takes pleasure in announcing that apparently as a result of the solar convulsions of recent years, and the consequent violent, but harmless perturbations of our planet, several new, warm streams have been for some time pouring from the Equator to both poles. Those of the Pacific converging at Behring’s Straits pour through into the Arctic region a current so hot that it is hardly endurable as a hot bath The American Gulf Stream and the Japanese Curo Siwo are much hotter than before. As a consequence, the climate is so changing in those northern regions that upper British America, Siberia, and some of the Antarctic lands are becoming quite pleasant and fruitful regions. If this process continues a few years, we may be able to announce the possibility of raising the earth’s population to twenty-five billions. Other causes, as yet unexplainable, have produced an increase of direct sun-heat in those regions. P. S. Another fact noticeable is a diminished heat in the Torrid Zone.”
“BULLETIN 15.—The electric light towers of the world generally will have to be more carefully treated. Complaints come in from various quarters that travelers along very prominent highways are frequently unable to read their newspapers at night.”
“BULLETIN 16.—The people of a village on the banks of the Niger River, Africa, were horror-struck lately, at observing an odor of decaying, malaria-breeding vegetation, issuing from the garden of a citizen. Investigation showed a rank undergrowth of rotting weeds. The man excused himself on the plea that being a poet he had been for a fortnight in a fine frenzy of imaginative creation, and had neglected his weeds. Excuse not received. He was sent to the Antarctic Fisheries, where high cultivation of the soil is not called for, and there is no chance to waste the food-producing gases.”
“BULLETIN 17.—A melancholy circumstance is reported from the Bernese Alps. A lovely maiden of eighteen years told her first, and therefore true, love three years ago that she believed in long engagements, and did not wish to marry him for at least five years. Not willing of course, to think of marrying any but his ‘own and only one,’ fearing that his admiration for the other sex might overcome his resolution in that unprecedented long interval, he built himself a stone hut high up in the Alps, and subsists as a goat-herdsman, and occasionally visits his whimsical betrothed. Girls should be careful how they trifle with these sacred matters.”
The above, soberly considered, must be counted as a legitimate illustration of the fact that on a paradisaical planet, there will be an absolute lack of tragedies; and incidents that seem laughably trivial to us, as matters of national consideration, will be the only variations from the uniform felicity. In that blissful time the first love will be usually the only love. For all young people will be then thoroughly instructed in physiology, phrenology, psychometry, hygiene, etc., so that they will guard their hearts until a true mate appears. Moreover, all then living in associated homes, will have an abundance of young folks to choose from, and will thus avoid the haphazard marriages that inevitably result from the isolation of our present modes of life.
“BULLETIN 18.—It has chanced, ‘in the whirligig of time,’ that Boston, once so proud of its superiority, is now the most barbarous place on the earth. A middle-aged citizen so far forgot himself in the heat of argument yesterday, as to call another citizen ‘a liar.'”
“BULLETIN 19.—In the present active state of human sympathy, people need to be careful about making demands upon it. Several air-ships arriving lately at Tobolsk from the North, containing people who said that they had tasted no strawberries and cream this year—the people of that place immediately stripped their vines of the delicious berries to present them to the strangers, and so had none for themselves for a week afterward.”
“BULLETIN 20.—On and after the 10th prox. the Society of Sky Painters will present a series of paintings by the new process upon the zenith on each clear day; passing around the earth from east to west. They will begin at Siam; and knowing by telegraph how far each picture is seen, will make them continuous by beginning the next at the farthest point at which the picture of the previous ray was plainly visible. The panorama will illustrate the battles of Armageddon—the last great battles between right and wrong, truth and error, reason and madness, vice and virtue, selfishness and benevolence, religion and atheism order and disorder. These were fought upon the soil of North America, and their representation will form very striking pictures.”
Now all this will seem very fanciful to some, very absurd to others. But every one of these bulletins” is somewhat founded upon existing facts. Even if all the fancywork be set aside, the truth remains, that the doctrine concerning the filling of the earth with good and wise people is incontrovertible.
SAMUEL LEAVITT.


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Fourier’s response to the Gazette de France — II

SECOND PART OF FOURIER’S REFUTATION OF THE GAZETTE OF FRANCE.

For some time past the secret influence of the philosophic Pandemonium had enjoined the discipline of general science in the press, concerning the science of “attractive industry,” but the indiscreet Gazette has disobeyed the word. It is proverbially noted for its gossiping propensity, and notwithstand the tactics of obscurism, one of its scribes, inspired with a new idea, has aimed a fatal blow of calumny against my principle, by charging them with insult to our Saviour, Jesus Christ.
The cause of this attack was a speech made by one of my partisans, at a scientific meeting on the subject of attractive industry; alter which, the orator, Mr. V. Considerant, took part in a religious controversy, a subject quite foreign from my science; and, therefore, whatever may have been said on such a question, does not, in the least, affect my responsibility. I never interfere with the religious opinions of those who adopt my principles of science, nor do I deem it necessary for me to do so.
Why should I be more intolerant than the Pope himself, who forms alliances and enters into contract with people who deny the Divinity of Christ? The agent of the Pope, in contracting for a loan with an Israelite banker, does not make s point of attacking his religion; and why should I, a simple individual of no authority, take upon myself to force conformity with my religious feelings and opinions? Some of my partisans are Jews; and what have I to do with that? My science, being purely industrial, is equally free to all religious sects; and though I am myself a Christian, I only teach the science of attractive industry; and neither my religion, nor my science, are affected by the peculiar opinions on religion held by those who advocate my theory.
If, then, it were true, (but it is not.) that the orator, Mr. V. Considerant, had professed opinions in opposition to the Gospel, my principles could not be held responsible for his errors, or for any opinions contrary to my own.
But the fiery Gazette has brought my name in question, and declaimed against what its scribes are pleased to call Fourierism, indicating my theory of attractive industry. Amongst a number of perfidious misrepresentations, the scribes have manufactured and inserted a dozen lines or more, in which Jesus Christ is really insulted, but, by the scribe of the Gazette, who has falsely attributed them to Mr. Considerant, whose written and spoken opinions are diametrically opposed to those attributed to him by the impious journalist.
Mr. Considerant immediately threatened the Gazette with an action for libel and defamation, if his own reply were not immediately inserted; but the perfidious journal, not daring to refuse insertion, evaded the effect of justice, by an unfair manœuvre in the printing, and a delay of three weeks time in its edition for the provinces.
These scribes say that “I wish to be the God of the material World,” and sometimes they dub me with the title of “Messiah.” What a pity it is they do not add a handsome pension to these Godlike honors!
Is it, then, pretending to deity one‘s-self, when one simply follows the divine precept,—“Seek, and ye shall find?” and having discovered any of the laws of God and Nature, is it infringing on the power of God merely to explain those laws to man? Did Kepler and Newton pretend to be gods when they discovered and made known the laws of God concerning our solar system and the mechanical equilibrium of celestial bodies?
On the contrary, I am, perhaps, the only person who has fully ruined those who really usurp the right of God. I have proclaimed the principle of a Universal Providence, and, in virtue of that principle, the necessity of seeking for the pre-ordained laws of harmony and unity relating to society, instead of trusting to the arbitrary laws of man. Jesus Christ himself repeatedly enjoined us to seek for God’s social code of laws, and predicted its discovery when truly sought; and if those who take credit to themselves for ultra-piety, had sufficient hope and faith in Providence, they would adhere to the letter of the Gospel dispensation, and believe our Saviour, who assures us that his Heavenly Father’s Providence extends even to the numbering of the hairs of our heads. It is, indeed, injurious to our Maker to doubt his Providence in pre-ordaining laws of social harmony for man, when he see that, from the greatest to the smallest works of his creation, he has provided laws of unity and harmony for their correlative conditions. Having provided laws of social unity for the enormous globes revolving in infinity, and also for the smallest insects inhabiting those globes, how is it possible to think he would neglect to make a similar provision for the social regulation of mankind? “ Has he not provided for the fowls of the air, and how much more worthy are we than they?”
It is impious, then, to doubt the Providence of God; and Jesus Christ has told us that our duty is to ” seek that we may find” the code of social harmony and justice which our Heavenly Father has prepared for us Irma all eternity. It is, in fact, impossible to think that God has not provided for the most imperious of our wants, a code of harmony for human society, to regulate industrial economy, producing an abundance of worldly comforts, for the happiness of all in perfect justice, and applicable to all the nations of the earth without exception.
The discovery of this code of social laws, is the task assigned to us by Christ himself, concerning this probationary state in which we should prepare for an hereafter; but philosophy has left us neither faith nor‘ hope in the universality of God’s providence, nor a spirit of charity extending to the whole of human-kind.
Philosophy only talks of gaining riches for one or two nations of the earth, leaving the rest to languish in ignorance and misery. Forgetting that God is the Creator of the I whole universe, and that his laws are made for all his creatures,—from the greatest to the smallest, the planet to the insect,—our modem legislators and philosophers have usurped the power of God; neglected the study of his laws of harmony, and made society the tool of men like Bartholus, Cujas, Mirabeau, and Target, of whom it may be said with truth, that they usurp the power of God in governing society by arbitrary rule, instead of following the precepts of the Gospel, and studying the will of Heaven: for, not only do they themselves refuse to study the will of God revealed to us in his eternal laws of mental, moral, and mechanical attraction, but they even vilify and persecute whoever questions their sophistical infallibility.
Christ has plainly told us what we are to think of such scribes and philosophers. “Ye hypocrites,” says he, “well did Essias prophecy of you, saying,—This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honor me -with their lips; but their heart is far from me. But in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the mmandments of men.”—(St. Matth. xv. 7, 8, 9.)
It is utterly false, then, to say that I pretend to be a God, either of the Material or the spiritual world. I render to Caesar that which belongs to Caesar; and to God, that which belongs to God, the right of legislating for humanity. But why should the scribes of the Gazette accuse me of wishing to be the “God of the material world” more particularly? This is a point requiring explanation.
It is said that my principles are subversive of Christianity, because they tend to harmonize in regular development, those passions or sources of activity in the human soul, which Christ enjoined us to subdue and mortify. Now, in the first place, nothing could tend more to subdue the passions in perfect harmony, than my science of passional mechanism and attractive industry, which prevents excess by infinite variety of action ; and as for the doctrine of mortification, it is not true that Christ intended it to last for ever. It was only meant to last during the periods of social incoherency which mark the progress from the fall of man to the full regeneration; and in these periods of ignorance, privation and injustice, it is absolutely necessary; but when, ” by seeking, we have found the kingdom of Heaven and its justice,” which means the laws of moral equilibrium in the physical and mental activity or human society, there will be no longer any need of an oppressive discipline to make us pure in heart and mind. We shall then be governed by a law of love in expansive equilibrium, infinitely more efficient than the law of fear, and compressive self-denial.
We must, of course, admit that the law of self-denial and positive restraint is absolutely necessary in the present state of things; but Christ, in telling us to “seek the kingdom of heaven and its justice, that all worldly comforts may be added unto us,” has also given a foretaste of physical enjoyment to those who manifested faith in his prediction. At the feast of Cana, did he not change the water into excellent wine? and did he not multiply the loaves and fishes to feed the multitude whose faith had led them to the desert with him? This miracle, he worked to recompense their faith in trusting to his power without anxiety for their own comfort. He himself took pleasure in speaking of his own dependency: “The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has no where to repose his head.”
He also rebuked those who accused him of faring sumptuously; saying,—“John the Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine ; and ye say, He hath a Devil. The Son of Man is come eating nd drinking and ye say, Behold a gluttonous man and a wine-bibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of all her children.” It is evident, therefore, that he deemed wisdom quite compatible with worldly comfort, and in order to join precept with example, he took his seat at a table served with delicacies, in the house of a publican who invited him; and when the courtezan anointed his hair with perfume, he rebuked the publican who blamed her for her services. To the woman herself he said, “Thy sins are forgiven: thy faith hath saved thee.” Compassionating with the sex that is most oppressed, he pardoned Magdalene and the adulteress, rebuking those who had accused .them. Nor did he forget to say, “My yoke is easy, and my burden is light.”—(St. Matth. xi. 30.)
It is clear, then, that our Redeemer was no enemy to riches and refinement; all he commanded was, that to worldly pleasures we should add a genuine faith in universal providence, and a proper use of heaven’s bounty, in seeking for the kingdom of justice and the science of social harmony.
Nor be it said that Christ, in speaking of the kingdom of Heaven and its justice, alluded to a future life alone, where worldly comforts are spoken of in allegory, for he knew well that neither food nor raiment would be wanting there. lt is not, then, of a future state he speaks, in promising us worldly blessings: and, the better to prevent mistake, he adds, ” Let those hear who have ears to hear,” meaning that his parables were true both ways, and that there are two kingdoms of heaven; one already in existence, and another to be finally established upon earth.
Philosophers deny all this, and ridicule the notion of a better state of things, because it has been hidden from their mental vision; and the unreflecting public fondle the delusion. This state of things is spoken of in Scripture, where it says—” They are as the blind leading the blind.”
St. Mark has tnily said of these, ” Ye neither understand the Scriptures, nor the power of God.”
A single instance of the power of God is quite enough to prove that the pretensions of philosophy to regulate society are incomparably deficient. The sole power of distributing our faculties, gives our Maker the facility of rendering any social law attractive and complete; while philosophers, who have no such power, can never make us like their schemes in opposition to our nature.
On the other hand, we are sure to err in misery by submitting to the arbitrary laws of human reason, which are not attractive to our innate feelings: for philosophy has not the power of altering our faculties, so as to adapt them to a liking for oppression, poverty, prisons, hulks, taxation, and anxiety, with all the other “graces” of human legislation and “liberal perfection.”
These considerations are alone sufficient to inform us that God must have originally made a plan for social happiness, and that it is our duty to obey the Gospel, in “seeking for the kingdom of Heaven and its justice,” revealed to us in all the laws of natural phenomena in matter and in mind.
Such will be the mechanism of passional attractionand industrial economy. And Jesus no doubt alluded to the scientific mission of an interpreter of these laws, when he Said, “ I speak to you in parables; but he who will come after me, will speak to you in spirit and in truth.” He who wished “that the things of Cæsar should be given unto Cæsar, and that the things of God be rendered unto God,” also wished that human reason should be left to do the work imposed on it by God; and thus reveal to 111811 the kingdom of Heaven and its justice, in the scientific mechanism of attractive industry based upon the principles of moral and religious unity.
As John the Baptist came before Christ with the mission of precursor, to announce the coming of the word, so another was to come after Christ with the mission of coadjutor, to study and reveal the laws of social mechanism by which peace and plenty will reward the general practico of truth and justice, and the human race commence the work of absolute regeneration.
This is the task of the Messiah, of whom M. de Lamartine, in his conversations with Indy Esther Stanhope on Mount Lebanon, spoke as being ” yet to come,” affirming “that those who are now living will see him with their own eyes, and for whose mission all things seem to be preparing in the world.”
But here, again, we may apply the words of Christ, ” Do not ye after their works, for they say and do not.”—St. Matthew, xxiii. 3.)
If it be true ” that a man is soon to appear with an extraordinary mission in science, and that, as all things are prepared in this world for his coming, we shall certainly see him in person;” how comes it, that when he has actually made his appearance and proved his mission by revealing a new science that will solve all the problems of social and political harmony,—how comes it, say, that all the learned world refuse to hear him, and absolutely form a coalition of obscurism to prevent the public from acquiring a knowledge of his science, or even of his existence, though he can prove that he has nrictly followed the injunctions of our Saviour, and that he speaks in the simple, clear, and natural spirit of mathematical truth which children may understand ; and the science which he thus reveals will teach us how to banish from the earth those hideous social ulcers, poverty, crime, slavery, mercantile fraud, and all the moral evils so much loathed in the sight of God?
 We have many philosophers who speak and write piously, because piety is now-a-days a political instrument; but it is not so easy to find people who are really pious in fulfilling the commands of Christ. If our philosophers were truly pious, they would say, “This theory of attractive industry should be carefully examined and tested by experience, for, if it be really true and practicable, its results would be prodigious.Besides creating wealth in great abundance, it would totally eradicate the germs of revolution; and of moral and religious discipline, it certainly affords the most secure foundation. In our present moral theories, we do indeed inculcate a love of honest industry, but then we must admit that little has been done to render it attractive. This author says he has discovered the science of attractive industry in conformity with the natural impulsions of mankind, and that, besides being proved by all the principles of science, his theory may easily be tested by a limited experiment on a single parish containing three or four hundred families. This is a great advantage compared to the dangers of political reforms affecting a whole nation by every new experiment. Should the experiment fail altogether, it will only affect a single parish, and if it be found defective in some of its parts only, we can probably correct its defects, and improve it as a whole.”
This would be the language of impartiality, but it is not to be expected from the learned corporations of this bouted centre of civilization, Paris.
The title of “Messiah” is, however, as applied by M. de Lamartine, in speaking of the man whose mission was announced by Christ, improperly applied to a mission of mere science. John the Baptist was the prophet whose mission was that of a pre-cursor to Jesus Christ, and my mission is that of the prophet post-cursorand coadjutor, announced by Christ to solve the Christian problem, and complete the scientific part of human regeneration with respect to industry alone and social equity; but I am not a Messiah, though the Gazette de France, in its furious attacks, accuses me of being in pretension both a “God” and a “Messiah.”
There is nothing mystical in a purely scientific mission; and though the function of a prophet and coadjutor in human regeneration has fallen to my lot, it is not the Irission of one specially elected, like John the Baptist, but a mission open to all the human race, any one of whom was free to study and interpret the social code of laws devised by God to introduce on earth “the kingdom of Heaven and its justice,” whenever human reasonshould perform the task imposed by Christ, of “seeking till we find; asking that it may be given; and knocking that it may be opened unto us;” to see and understand the laws of social harmony and passional attraction.
I have performed this mission in accordance with the bidding of our Saviour, by leaving the beaten track of arbitrary speculation and the cunning of philosophers, of whom the world’s Redeemer said,—“O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.”—(SL Mal. xii. 34.) ” Woe unto you, scribes and pharisees, hypocrites, for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men’s bones, and of all uncleanness. Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity-.”—(St. Matth. xxiii. 27, 28.)
These words are truly applicable to those philosophers of our day, who laud the present state of civilization as the beau-ideal of society, though it is based on the most odious principles, such as the following, which are openly professed:
“It is absolutely necessary to keep the multitude in poverty in order to enrich the few, and, not being able to prevent the horrors of this state of things, we must learn to look upon them as necessary evils.”These maxims are indeed worthy of a sect which holds the principles of sceptical philosophy, and publicly asserts ” that the mass of the people can never be happy until the last of the kings shall have been strangled with the gut-strings of the last of priests,” and whose watch-word in the work of human massacre, is “Down with the impostor,” (écrasez l’infâme,) meaning Jesus Christ. ls it a wonder, then, that these philosophers oppose my doctrine, which was announced by Christ himself as the industrial mechanism of truth and the spirit of social harmony, to he revealed by the interpreter of God’s social code, who was to come after Christ?
Let me not be misunderstood in saying this; for I ask nothing for myself, neither mediately nor immediately. My mission is to speak the truth, and minister to the Holy Ghost. Jesus Christ has said, ” He that loveth me not, keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father’s which sent me. These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you, hut the comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever l have said unto you.” —(St. John, xiv. 24, 25, 26.) Now the literal meaning of the words Holy Ghost being the spirit of truth, it is clear that every principle of truth and harmony is an emanation of the Holy Ghost, or the universal spirit of truth, and, in this sense, the science of social harmony is the social “comforter,” explaining all things relating to the practice of truth and justice upon earth.
We may again repeat with Christ, that “the light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.”—(St. John, iii. 19.) This is true of the present state of philosophy, containing at least one hundred thousand different and contradictory systems, none of which will bear the light of a comparison with that science of social mechanism and attractive industry it has been my lot to discover; and which consists in harmonizing all our instincts and desires by means of an industrial and domestic combination, the leading springs of which are,—@
1. Regularly graduated scales of discord and natural inequalities.
2. The proper combination of series and groups in the functions of industry.
3. Variety of occupation, and ii free choice of function, subject only to real skill and due qualification.
Whether this be or be not the true principle of industrial mechanism and social harmony, there can be no doubt that the present age, so frequently convulsed by the disastrous innovations of unsound philosophy, has need of some new science to secure stability and peaceful progress. After trusting to political and moral theories in vain for centuries and centuries past in misery, it is natural to try another mode of innovation, which, if even inefficient, is at least secure from danger and convulsion. Those who have property at stake might certainly to tire of a philosophy which only serves to generate iniquity, and oppose the influence of pernicious doctrines by s principle which is, in all respects, the very opposite. The arbitrary doctrines of philosophy would vanish into darkness and oblivion as soon as the real principles of social policy were practically tested; for this is the principle of which Christ has said, “Et portæ inferi non prævolebunt.”
What are these “Gates of Hell” of which he speaks? there are, at least, two which are easily recognized: intolerant philosophy, and j the spirit of self-righteousness which is not less intolerant. Both of these are worshippers at the same shrine of superstition: that of a PASSIVE and INERT resignation to the principle of evil and the honors of competitive society. The one tells us that “crime and misery are the necessary results of civilization, and that we must submit to them patiently without hoping to avoid them;” the other tells us ” that we must resign ourselves to suffering in this world, in order to obtain our reward in the next:” but those who preach these doctrines, take very good care not to follow them themselves. They invariably secure for themselves as much as they can of the comforts of life, and then deliberately tell their starving brethren to suffer patiently the wrongs which they endure.
It is no doubt proper to resign ourselves with patience and forbearing, as long as society remains in ignorance and poverty; but Christ himself has told us that this state of things was not to be perpetual, and that it was our duty to escape from it as soon as possible, by seeking the kingdom of Heaven and its justice, that all worldly comforts might be added unto us abundantly.—He expressly told us also to be active in our faith, and not to indulge our idleness in a passive and inert resignation to the principle of evil; but to seek that mechanism of the science of attractive industry and combined economy.
What can be the cause of this passive and inert resignation to the principle of evil, in the church? During eighteen centuries the ministers of Christ have warned us against the baneful doctrine. of philosophy;  was it not their duty, therefore, to follow the injunctions of our Saviour, and seek, till they discovered, the science of social harmony, and its principles of truth and practical equity? But, supposing their efforts to have been constant, thong inadequate, is it not, at least, their duty to protect the man who has devoted thirty-eight years of a laborious life to the seeking and discovering of the principles of justice and social regeneration?
The Church has evidently lost her equilibrium: she has been betrayed into the hands of vain philosophy; for those who call themselves the “pillars of the Church,” are neither more nor less than skeptical philosophers.
What are these scribes of the Gazette, but sceptics in disguise, forming a pandemonium of obscurism? proscribing every attempt at social progress, and supporting the monopoly of privilege and sophistry.—Its proceedings in 1829 were more scandalous than those of any other journal published in Paris. It is a well known fact, that the most abominable system of intimidation was used to terrify those amongst the public functionaries who did not generally purchase the Gazette.
These pretended champions of religion, are betraying both the monarch and the Church, for no party is more deeply interested in the welfare of the people, than the clergy of the Church of Rome, and the King of the French nation, who is more or less suspected by all the kings of Europe.
The vessel of St. Peter has evidently lost its rudder, for, during the last half century, it has been so badly governed, that the clergy have lost almost all their former influence; and as for the throne of France, it is so far humbled, that it dares not venture to resist the influence of American chicanery, which has recently constrained us to admit a doubtful claim upon our treasury.
All parties, then, are equally interested in the progress of truth and general prosperity; and, as all the schemes of fanciful philosophy have failed, it is but rational to expect a contrary result from the practical application of those principles which are, in all their bearings, the very opposite of incoherency and individualism.
It is in vain for the blind members of the Church to think, that if it were possible to establish harmony and justice in society, Christ himself would have revealed to us the science of its organization; for, I have already proved that he commanded us to seek it in ourselves, and by the aid of human reason, in connexion with an ACTIVE faith in Providence and all his promises.
Ministers of the Church,—you whose mission it is to call sinners to repentance—are you not sinning, yourselves, against the doctrines of Christianity? By adopting the tactics of sceptical obscurism, and opposing my theory by your premeditated silence, are you not opposing the will of your master, who announced the scientific mission of human regeneration?
You are witnesses to the declining influence of Christian principles and the spreading influence of mystical and sceptical philosophy; and though you may deem these systems of philosophy too absurd to be generally introduced, still it is your duty to be active in your opposition; for the general aberrations of material and inductive philosophy may give rise to sects whose doctrines would be no less offensive than the Atheism of the Owenites, and the spoliating tendencies of St. Simonism in its doctrines of inheritance. If you remain blind to the duties of your mission, you will shortly have in Europe as many heterogeneous sects of religious doctrines as there are in America, and civil war is almost the inevitable product of this religious anarchy.
In this dilemma, your only safety lies in bringing into practical consistence my principles. which will rapidly supersede the influence of your natural enemies, the sceptical philosophers.
You need not be alarmed at the risk of fostering an error; for, one single experiment would prove it to be true or false without endangering the present constitution of society. Remember, also. that the most useful discoveries have been generally ill received at first: the simple grain of coffee, and that very useful root the potato, were prohibited as poisons, by the learning of a Parliament. The first inventors of steam-engine were most of them insulted, and some of them were even put to death. Columbus was banished for announcing even the probable existence of a New Continent, and the thunder of an excommunication was hurled upon his head from the Holy See of I Rome; then, surely, you should pause before you condemn.
And yet, we can hardly expect to find wisdom and discernment in the Church, when we see the Universal Bishop stigmatising equally both friends and foes. In the last index, published at Rome, we find names classed together without any rule of justice. The Church, in her distress, has lost her mental equilibrium and discernment. She has inconsiderately classed the name of the celebrated Christian poet, De Lamartine, with that of St. Simon, the avowed opponent of the Roman clergy; and to make the matter worse, my name has been connected with the enemies of property, although my principles would introduce at least twenty-four new source of security to private property, in addition to those which are already in existence.
It is a strange anomaly, that the Christian Pontiff should denounce the only man who has demonstrated, by mathematic revelation, the necessary existence of a God, and the universality of Providence. Before my discovery, the very existence of Deity was questioned in the name of science; but this delusion of Atheism, arising from the aberrations of reason, is now completely dissipated in the sphere of real science. These errors of the Church prove that vain philosophy has stolen its way into the Vatican, and the bewildered Pope of Rome is now the dupe of scepticism.
This language may be deemed severe, but no one has so good a right as I to call the Church to an account for her neglect of duty. lam, perhaps the only innovator, having every chance of founding a new religious sect, who has not thought of doing such a thing. My doctrine satisfies, at once, the natural desires of both soul and body, in this world and in the next: l have had, therefore, several chances of founding a religious sect, which no man ever had before.
But my mission is not to create a new sect; in fact, I look upon all religious schisms as brands of discord: and, as my task is to conciliate all parties in both Church and State, by the institution of attractive industry and social equity, I am opposed to all the arts of policy which would cause disturbance, and class me amongst mere turbulent agitators. I disavow also, beforehand, whoever might, when I am gone, make any such abuse of my conciliatory principles, which serve invariably the interests of all parties.
[To those who have “ears to hear,” and “eyes to see,” nothing can be more beautifully clear than Fourier’s elucidation of the Gospel; but many there are, within and without the pale of the Christian Church, whose mental visions is too much obscured to recognize the light. The Church itself has long been more or less eclipsed by negative philosophy; but soon, we feel convinced, the shadow of uncertainty will gradually vanish, and leave the type of unity to re-assert her mission by dispensing light and heat, in spirit and in truth, to all the human race.]

[Source: The Phalanx, 1, 14 (July 13, 1844) 205-209.]

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